International Dental Research 2023-01-05T10:33:01+00:00 Prof. Dr. Ozkan ADIGUZEL Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><em>International Dental Research </em>is a multidisciplinary&nbsp;double-blind peer-reviewed dental journal publishing articles in the field of dentistry. The <em>International Dental Research</em> is the official tri-annually publication (April, August, December).&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">The <em>&nbsp;International Dental Research</em> publishes scientific articles, case reports and comparison studies evaluating materials and methods of dental treatment. Dentists can learn about new concepts in dental treatment and the latest advances in techniques and instrumentation in the one journal that helps them keep pace with rapid changes in this field. The journal also aims to provide clinicians, scientists and students of dentistry with a knowledge transfer platform for rapid publication of reports through an international journal, which will be available free online. The broad coverage of current research has given the journal an international reputation as an indispensable source for both basic scientists and clinicians engaged in understanding and preventing dental disease. All articles will be critically reviewed by the editor and invited referees within 2 months. No fees are requested from the authors for submission and publication process.</p> Treatment of hypomineralized maxillary central and canine teeth with resin infiltration technique: A case report 2022-10-15T16:39:19+00:00 Seden Tüzel İlke Torbalı Çokkeçeci Mine Betül Üçtaşlı Hacer Deniz Arısu <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The resin infiltration technique is a minimally invasive approach that can be used to treat white spot lesions and arrest the progression of caries lesions. In this case report, it is aimed to eliminate the existing aesthetic problem by treating enamel hypomineralization in the maxillary central and canine teeth with the resin infiltration technique.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A 17-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic because of an aesthetic problem caused by a white spot lesion in his maxillary central and canine teeth. After clinical and radiological examination, his treatment options were evaluated, and we decided to treat it with the resin infiltration technique. After cleaning the surfaces of the teeth with a prophylaxis pad (Ultrapro Tx, Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA), isolation was achieved by applying a gingival barrier (Gingival Barrier, SDI, Bayswater, VIC, Australia). The adjacent teeth were protected using Teflon tape. A 15% hydrochloric acid gel (Icon Etch, DMG, Hamburg, Germany) was applied to the enamel surfaces for two minutes by mixing with a brush. After, the acid was removed using a water spray for 30 seconds. Ethanol (Icon Dry, DMG, Hamburg, Germany) was applied for 30 seconds and air dried. Then, a low-viscosity resin infiltrant (Icon Infiltrant; DMG, Hamburg, Germany) was applied to the tooth surfaces for three minutes by slight massage. After the application, the resin was light polymerized for 40 seconds (D-Light Pro, GC, Tokyo, Japan). The whole procedure was performed in such a way that there were two consecutive cycles.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Aesthetics improved after the procedure. The patient was followed up with control sessions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> White spot lesions can be treated with a minimally invasive approach using the resin infiltration technique with appropriate indication.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research The effect of the material used and the pulp chamber extension depth on stress distribution of endocrowns: A three-dimensional finite element analysis 2022-10-11T11:52:57+00:00 Neslihan Güntekin Reza Mohammadi Makbule Tuğba Tunçdemir <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to examine the effects of materials used and the depth of extension into the pulp chamber on stress distribution in mandibular molar endodontically treated teeth with endocrown restoration using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Three-dimensional finite element analysis models were obtained at two different pulp chamber extension depths by taking a tomography of a root canal-treated mandibular molar tooth extracted for periodontal reasons: 2.5 mm (Model A) and 3.5 mm (Model B). Models were divided into the following three groups according to material type used: Vita Enamic (VE), Lava Ultimate (LU), and IPS e.max CAD (EMX). The aforementioned model groups were further divided into the following two subgroups according to the types of cement used: NX3 and MaxCem Elite Chroma (MX). Maximum principal stress (MPa) values under 600 N vertical load were investigated to evaluate the effect of restoration design, material type, and cements used on stress distribution.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The maximum stress on the restoration was observed in the EMX material type (13,000 MPa) in the MX cement group in Model A, while the lowest was observed in the LU material (5,932 MPa) in the NX3 cement group in Model A. The areas of highest stress for both Models A and B were observed in the restoration areas corresponding to the enamel margins.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Materials with a higher elastic modulus show a higher stress area on the restoration surface, while the stress values they transmit are lower. Materials with the elastic modulus close to dentin have more homogeneous stress distributions within the restoration.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research Effect of margin design changes on stress distribution in zirconia-based full-crown restorations: A three-dimensional finite element analysis 2022-10-11T13:27:43+00:00 Neslihan Güntekin Reza Mohammadi Ali Rıza Tunçdemir <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of margin design changes on the stress distribution in zirconia-based full-crown restorations using three-dimensional finite element analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For use in the design of full-crown restorations, tooth number 16 was prepared in chamfer step type on a maxillary tooth jaw model (AG-3: Tipodont, Frasaco, Germany). The prepared tooth was scanned using a desktop scanner, and a three-dimensional finite element analysis model was obtained. Zirconia frameworks are divided into three groups according to the margin design: uniform thickness hood type (Model A), ¾ partial crown form (Model B), and a lingual-band type (Model C). The crown form was completed using feldspathic porcelain as the superstructure material. To determine the stress distribution of the margin design on the restoration, the maximum principal stress (MPa) values under a 600 N vertical load were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The maximum stress on the zirconia framework was observed in Model A (82.90 MPa), and the maximum stress on the tooth was observed in Model B (49.34 MPa). The maximum stress on the feldspathic porcelain was highest in Model A (21,860 MPa), and the minimum stress on the tooth occurred in Model B (13.33 MPa). In the zirconia framework, the lowest stress was 11.54 MPa (Model B).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The framework design was shown to affect the force generated on the restoration and transmitted to the tooth. The results of the present study will help dentists determine the ideal infrastructure design for zirconia-based restorations. Lingual band designs were found to be successful.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research Investigation of the coloring effects of different ground-based coffee types on composite resin materials 2022-10-13T14:45:55+00:00 Meryem Erdoğdu Makbule Tuğba Tunçdemir Neslihan Güntekin <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different ground-based coffee types on the color change of nanohybrid and bulk-fill composites.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 80 disk-shaped samples were made using Teflon molds (5 mm in diameter and 8 mm thick) and two types of A2 resin with nanohybrid (Tetric N Ceram Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and bulk-fill (Filtek Bulk-Fill, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) structures. All samples were finished and polished with four-stage (thick, medium, fine, and superfine) polishing disks (Sof-lex, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) and kept at 37°C for 24 hours. Color measurements of the samples were performed using a spectrophotometer (Vita Easy Shade, Vita ZahnFabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany) and were divided into subgroups: the control group, filter coffee, Turkish coffee, espresso, and Mırra (n = 8). Distilled water was used as a control. Prepared coffees were added to the microcentrifuge tubes and refreshed daily during the 14-day exposure period. ΔE values were calculated for each material. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way variance analysis and Tukey multiple comparisons (p = 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant color change for either the nano-fill or bulk-fill composite groups in the control group samples (p&gt;0.05). Filter coffee was found to be the most effective colorant coffee type for both composites (p&lt;0.05). Among the coffee types, Mırra caused the least coloration for both composites.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The consumption of two or more cups of coffee per day, especially filter coffee, can cause color changes in both conventional and bulk-fill composites, and it should be considered an important factor in aesthetic problems with dental restorations.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research The effect of occlusal reduction and different CAD-CAM materials on stress distribution in endocrown restorations: A three-dimensional finite element analysis 2022-10-17T19:41:17+00:00 Gökçen İrem Tolu Neslihan Güntekin Reza Mohammadi Mehmet Gökberkkaan Demirel <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various preparation types and restorative materials on endocrown restorations applied to endodontically treated maxillary first molars and the stress distribution on the related tissues.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A three-dimensional (3D) image of a previously extracted intact tooth was obtained with CBCT. The resulting .dicom files were imported into Mimics. Enamel, dentine, and pulp were separated and extracted as an STL file. Four groups were determined and prepared in SolidWorks. The 3D images were imported into the relevant finite element analysis software (ABAQUS, 2020 Dassault Systems Simulation Corp., Johnston, RI, USA), and a load of 600 N was applied at the occlusal area of each model in the axial direction. Models were divided into three groups according to material type: Vita Suprinity (VS; VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany), Cerasmart (CS; GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and Shofu Block HC (SB; Shofu, Kyoto, Japan). The type of cement used was RelyX ARC (3M ESPE, MN, USA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Regardless of the results, stress on any tissue or restoration did not exceed the strength limits. In models with cusp preparation, the stress on the dental tissues was lower. Higher stress was generally observed in groups in which the lingual area was healthy. On the other hand, stress occurring in zirconia-reinforced glass ceramics (VS) is higher than in ceramic materials with a resin matrix (CS, SB). It has been determined that the stress transmitted to the supporting tissues is lower.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Endocrown restorations can be used in the restoration of endodontically treated first molars. In addition, when endocrown restoration is applied to molars with only one healthy area and excessive loss of coronal structure, reducing the cusp is beneficial in terms of the distribution of stress on healthy tissues.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research The effects of age on tooth color and of viewing distance on visual tooth color matching in aesthetic dentistry 2022-10-12T11:58:02+00:00 Burcu Kızılırmak Neslihan Güntekin Ali Rıza Tunçdemir <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to question the effect of visual distance on color selection by scoring the maxillary central tooth color with the visual color selection method and to investigate the relationship between tooth color and patient age.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Maxillary central tooth color was determined by a single operator using visual methods from two different distances, 35 cm and 70 cm, in a total of 100 people between the ages of 20-80 and of different genders. The value, hue and ages of the teeth were recorded using the VITA Toothguide 3D-MASTER color scale at 2 different viewing distances. Visual color selection was made in natural daylight, preferably between 10:00 and 12:00 in the morning. Subjects were observed at eye level, and all color assessments were performed rapidly (5-7 s). Independent T-test was used for independent groups and Chi-square test was used for dependent groups.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Considering the relationship of lightness with distance, there is a significant difference between the values ​​at 35 cm and 70 cm distances. It was observed that the lightness increased when the measurements made from 70 cm were compared with the measurements made from 35 cm. As the age increases, the ratio of the brightness value of 1, which is the highest lightness, decreases, and the ratio of the darker 3 and 4 lightness​​increases. R (reddish) hue was found to be higher in the 40-59 and over 60 age groups compared to the 20-39 age group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was observed that the tooth color was determined lighter in the measurements made from 70 cm compared to the measurements made from 35 cm. It is important to determine the color at 35 cm so that the incorrect lightness (value) is not selected. It can be said that as the age increases, the tooth gets darker and the reddish and yellowish hue increases.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research Dentistry students after the COVID-19 outbreak—have views on distance education changed? 2022-10-11T16:14:54+00:00 Hakan Yasin Gönder Muhammet Fidan Mehmet Gökberkkaan Demirel Mehmet Soybelli Sinem Alkurt İbrahim Burak Yüksel <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to evaluate dentistry students for changes in anxiety levels between the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the point where COVID restrictions were reduced to a minimum and to compare their perspectives on distance education at both points in time.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The participants in this study were undergraduate students (n = 297) from the Faculty of Dentistry who volunteered to answer a questionnaire that asked them to detail the anxiety levels that they experienced during the COVID-19 period and during the months after COVID-related restrictions were lifted. The students were also asked for their opinions about the theoretical dentistry lessons delivered by distance education. The measurement values obtained were subjected to the independent sample t-test for comparisons between groups and to the one-way analysis of variance for comparisons of more than two groups. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between anxiety levels. A value of p&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When asked whether technology-based education was beneficial, and whether theoretical education should be realized through distance education, men answered yes at a higher rate than women. (p &lt; 0.05). It was also observed that, compared to the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, the anxiety scores of the participants were lower in the months after pandemic restrictions were reduced.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the findings, it was observed that male students were more inclined to use the internet, to believe that technology-based education was beneficial, to prefer distance education over face-to-face education, and to be more motivated in distance education than face-to-face education. COVID-19 has impacted face-to-face education with a sudden transition to distance education, and these results support the importance of identifying the deficiencies in this education method and developing this system.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research Retrospective analysis of the effect on vital signs of using local anesthesia during dental procedures on patients with epilepsy 2022-10-13T13:24:01+00:00 Hazal Özer Merve Abaklı İnci Hemra Nur Özaşık <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In our study, we investigated the effects of local anesthesia on pediatric epileptic patients’ vital signs (temperature, oxygen saturation, pulse, and blood pressure) before, during, and after application.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Epileptic patients needing dental treatment who applied to the Department of Pedodontics in the Faculty of Dentistry at Necmettin Erbakan University between January 2021 and July 2022 were included in the study. After clinical and radiographic examination, Necmettin Erbakan University Meram Medical Faculty Pediatric Neurology Department was sent for consultation. Temperature, oxygen saturation, pulse, and blood pressure data were collected before, during, and after anesthesia in 39 procedures performed on 19 patients. Before data analysis, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk tests were applied to test the normality of distribution. A paired sample t-test was used to examine the fever, pulse, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation levels of the participants before, during, and after anesthesia. Statistical significance was indicated when <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found a statistically significant difference between the participants’ pulse measurements during anesthesia and their pulse measurements post-anesthesia (<em>p</em> = 0.049). There was also a statistically significant difference between the participants’ pre-anesthesia oxygen saturation measurements and their pre-anesthesia oxygen saturation measurements (<em>p</em> = 0.042). Finally, we found a statistically significant difference between the participants’ pre-anesthesia oxygen saturation levels and their post-anesthesia oxygen saturation levels (<em>p</em> = 0.012).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In patients with a history of epilepsy, attention should be paid not only to the anesthetics used during dental procedures but also to the consequences of dental anxiety. Dental treatments should be planned with the necessary precautions.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research Evaluation of parents’ knowledge and attitudes about early childhood caries 2022-10-13T13:42:09+00:00 Merve Abaklı İnci Hazal Özer Sevcihan Acar Tuzluca <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Tooth decay is the world’s most common bacterial infection. Despite the existence of practices for preventing dental caries, early childhood caries (ECC) continue to be a health problem of global concern. The incidence of ECC may vary between societies depending on their cultural habits regarding infant feeding. This study aimed to evaluate parents’ attitudes about early childhood caries, to determine their ECC-causing misbehaviors, and to evaluate their knowledge about prevention and preventive treatments.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study was conducted among 150 participants and consisted of a cross-sectional survey tailored to the parents who applied to the clinic. Participation was completely voluntary, and parents who submitted a fully completed questionnaire and volunteered to participate in the study were included, whereas parents who did not wish to participate, did not answer at least one question, or were illiterate were excluded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 67.3% of the parents participating in the study were female (n=101) and 32.7% were male (n=49). In answering “yes” to the proposition “the bacteria that cause caries can be passed from mother/caregiver to child,” 36.7% of participants demonstrated correct knowledge of this matter. 42.7% of the participants believed that “the first sign of dental caries is white spots on the tooth surface.” In answering yes to the proposition “if early childhood caries is not treated, it can affect the general health and development of the child,” 79.3% demonstrated correct knowledge of this matter.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ECC’s risk determinants should be identified as early as possible, and the most appropriate preventive measures should be implemented rapidly with accurate information and on-site interventions.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research Retrospective evaluation of fissure sealants applied by dentistry students 2022-10-14T11:54:24+00:00 Merve Abaklı İnci Hazal Özer Merve Koç <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy and success in meeting protective expectations over time of resin-containing fissure sealants applied by dentistry students in our clinic.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Six-month controls were performed on 516 teeth of 85 patients aged 9–15 years. The 6-month controls of the resin-based pit and fissure sealants applied by 5th-grade dentistry students to patients presenting to the Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Dentistry Pedodontics Clinic between January 2022 and February 2022 were checked, and their survival was checked. The SPSS 26 statistical program was used in the analysis of the data. The statistical significance level in the study was determined as <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05. A total of 85 patients and a total of 516 teeth, including premolars and molars, were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 128 teeth were processed in the right maxilla, and total retention was observed in 102 teeth. Right maxilla; When the left maxilla (<em>p</em> = 0.001), left mandible (<em>p</em> = 0.011), and right mandible (<em>p</em> = 0.001) were compared in terms of total retention, a statistically significant difference was found. When the teeth were compared among themselves, the highest rate of loss, a total loss of 50%, was found in teeth 26 and 47. When the teeth were evaluated according to age, teeth numbered 14 (<em>p</em> = 0.001) and 24 (<em>p </em>= 0.001) were 9 years old, teeth 35 (<em>p</em> = 0.001) and 45 (<em>p</em> = 0.001) were 9–10 years old, and tooth number 44 (0.012). At the age of 10, the percentage of total loss was higher than in the other age groups, and a statistically significant difference was found. This suggests that the ideal isolation of the permanent premolars may not have been achieved because they do not fully erupt at the age of 9–10. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> When all the results were evaluated, it was seen that the retention of fissure sealants depended on multiple factors, and their indications should be carefully examined.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research Investigation of the relationship between body mass index and early childhood caries 2022-10-15T19:35:08+00:00 Yasemin Derya Fidancıoğlu Mutlu Güneş <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and early childhood caries by using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index in early childhood.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Dental scans of the children were performed by two experienced physicians in line with World Health Organization criteria, using mirrors and probes, in daylight. The DMFT index was employed to determine the number of DMFT. The height and weight of the children were measured and recorded with a digital scale and height ruler during the examination. BMI was calculated by dividing their body weight (kg) by the square of their height in meters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no statistically significant difference between age groups according to gender (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). When the DMFT index values according to the BMI classifications of the children participating in the study and the number of caries, missing, and filled teeth of four different groups (weak, normal, overweight, obese) were compared according to the BMI classification, a difference was observed between the groups. The DMFT indexes of the children who were evaluated as obese with an increasing BMI had higher results than those for the other groups (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> More detailed and long-term studies are needed to determine the causal relationship between the variables examined when evaluating the relationship between dental caries and BMI, as well as to formulate appropriate interventions related to these variables.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research Investigation of the effect of different experimental acid solutions applied on the zirconia surface on the bond strength between zirconia and resin cement: A pilot study 2022-10-17T11:31:04+00:00 Tuba Yılmaz Savaş Abdulhaluk Savaş Ceyda Akın Ali Rıza Tunçdemir <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of two different experimental acid solutions and sandblasting on the bond strength between zirconia ceramic core material and resin cement.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Forty zirconia core materials were prepared and separated into four groups based on the surface treatment to be applied (n = 10) as follows: 1) Control Group: no surface treatment was performed; 2) Sandblasting Group: the specimen surfaces were sandblasted with 50 µm aluminum oxide particles from a distance of 10 mm at 3 bar pressure for 15 seconds; 3) Sol-1 Group: H<sub>2</sub>O:HF:H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> solution was applied for 60 seconds, washed, and then dried; and 4) Sol-2 Group: H<sub>2</sub>O:HF:HNO<sub>3</sub> solution was applied to the surfaces of the specimens for 60 seconds, washed, and then dried. All specimens were coated with a dual-cure resin cement with a 2.8-mm diameter. After 24 hours, the specimens were tested for shear bond strength (SBS) at 1 mm/min using a universal testing device. Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests with a confidence interval of 95%.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The difference among the groups was statistically significant (<em>p</em> = 0.002) based on the one-way ANOVA results. The Control Group had the lowest SBS (8.06 ± 4.52), whereas the Sol-1 Group had the highest SBS (17.10 ± 5.67). The Sol-1 and Sol-2 Groups demonstrated comparable bonding strength values (<em>p</em> = 0.17). The Sandblasting and Sol-1 Groups exhibited considerably stronger bond strength than the Control Group (p = 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The experimental acid solutions enhanced the bond strength between the resin cement and the zirconia ceramic at the sandblasting treatment level.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research Evaluation of dental caries and periodontal status of individuals with rheumatic disease 2022-10-15T20:26:41+00:00 Sinem Özdemir Nimet Ünlü <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to compare the prevalence of dental caries and the incidence of periodontally alveolar bone loss in individuals with rheumatic diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and familial Mediterranean fever) with those of healthy individuals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study included 324 healthy individuals and 324 individuals with rheumatic diseases between the ages of 16 and 80 who were examined at Selçuk University Faculty of Dentistry between 2017 and 2022. The intraoral examination and radiographic results of all patients recorded in the Patient Information Management System were analyzed and data were recorded by a single researcher. According to the intraoral visual examination and radiographic results of the patients, periodontal alveolar bone loss was evaluated as present or absent. DMF-T, DF-T, and D-T values ​​were calculated by evaluating the number of decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth of all patients on the radiographic records. Statistical analyses of the obtained data were performed with Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and Mann–Whitney U tests, all of which are non-parametric tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> From the results of statistical analysis of all data of rheumatic-diseased and healthy individuals, statistically significant differences were observed ​​between the two groups in DF-T, D-T, M-T, and periodontal bone loss values ​​(<em>p</em> = 0.022, <em>p </em>= 0,000, <em>p </em>= 0,006, and <em>p </em>= 0,000, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study showed that the risk of caries and periodontal disease in individuals with rheumatic diseases is higher than that in healthy individuals. To confirm the results of this study, more detailed interventional studies are needed to evaluate microbiologically and biochemically the relationship between periodontitis and caries risk with rheumatoid diseases.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research Evaluation of color stability after the application of a bleaching agent to different composite resins 2022-10-15T18:05:46+00:00 Hazal Deniz Köse Zehra Güner <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In dentistry, it is desirable to preserve the properties of composites for a long time. With the development of technologies, the number of different composites used in dental treatment has increased. With contemporary patients’ aesthetic expectations, bleaching treatmens are often sought, and the literature contains many studies on the effects of bleaching on composites. Our study aimed to examine the color stability of different types of composites immersed in different solutions after bleaching treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 72 samples (n = 8) of three composite materials were examined: Omnichroma (Tokuyama Dental Co., Tokyo, Japan), Estelite Posterior (Tokuyama Dental Co., Tokyo, Japan), and Quadrant (Cavex, Holland BV, Netherlands). All specimens were subjected to Total Blanc (Nova DFL, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which is an office-type bleaching agent. After bleaching treatments, the specimens were immersed in distilled water. The baseline measurements were then recorded. After being immersed in distilled water, tea, or coffee for seven days, the final color measurements were recorded. A VITA Easy Shade device (Vita Zahnarzt, Bad Säckingen, Germany) was used to take color measurements. The CIEDE2000 formula was used to calcuate ΔE<sub>00</sub> values. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the ΔE<sub>00</sub> values obtained from the composite samples to assess color stability. The results were rated at a significance level of <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After bleaching treatments, the interaction between the different composites and the solutions in which they were immersed had a statistically significant effect on ΔE<sub>00</sub> values (p &lt; 0.05). The highest mean value was obtained with the quadrant composite material that was immersed in the coffee solution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is clear that tea and coffee cause discoloration in dental composites after bleaching treatments. Due to the sorption of these solutions into the composite structure, dentists should warn patients to be cautious about consuming beverages after bleaching.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research Incidence of white spot lesions and DMFT among patients treated with comprehensive orthodontics 2022-10-12T11:24:21+00:00 Hakan Yasin Gönder Mücahid Yıldırım Şule Nur Metli <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The development of new caries lesions in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment is an undesirable side effect of treatment that arises because the fixed appliance tends to accumulate plaque. The aim of this study was to examine the white spot lesions (WSL), caries incidence, and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) indices in patients with fixed orthodontic treatments.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The records of 150 patients treated at Necmettin Erbakan University Department of Orthodontics between 2018 and 2022 who met the study selection criteria were examined. Traditional methods and 2D color photographs were used to detect cavities. Pretreatment (T0) and post-treatment (T1) recordings were made.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, 118 patients (78.6%) developed at least 1 new WSL during treatment and 49 patients (32.6%) developed active caries lesions. Increases in WSL, caries incidence, and the DMFT index were important during the treatment process. The length of treatment and the number of oral hygiene warnings were significantly associated with the development of new lesions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Individuals undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment have a significant incidence of WSLs and caries lesions. Patients and physicians should pay strict attention to this problem to effectively prevent caries occurrence during treatment.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research Evaluation of olfactory threshold changes in patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion 2022-10-13T13:30:18+00:00 Mücahid Yıldırım Emire Aybüke Erdur Ömer Erdur Şule Nur Metli <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) provides an orthopedic effect that solves the problem of transverse deficiency of the maxilla. Moreover, it contributes positively to the functioning of the entire nasopharynx by increasing the cross-sectional area and volume of the nasal tract, thus reducing airway resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in olfactory threshold after RME treatment of patients with maxillary transverse deficiency.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Olfactory threshold and identification tests as well as acoustic rhinometry parameter (Volume1, MCA1, Volume2, MCA2) measurements were conducted for 40 patients (11–16 years) before treatment (T0) and 6 months after (T1) rapid maxillary expansion application.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A significant improvement was observed when the olfactory threshold values at T0 (0.96 ± 0.07) and T1 (0.79 ± 0.13) (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) were compared. A significant improvement was also observed upon comparing the identification test results at T0 (0.63 ± 0.13) and T1 (0.79 ± 0.11) (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001). The acoustic rhinometry results showed a significant increase in Volume 1, MCA1, Volume 2 and MCA2 in the right and left nasal cavities after treatment (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this study, acoustic rhinometry showed that nasal cavity area and volume increased in patients who underwent rapid maxillary expansion therapy. Further, the olfactory functions measured by the olfactory threshold test and identification test improved significantly. However, research involving larger study groups and control groups are needed.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research A comparison of transversal changes occurring in the treatment of rapid maxillary expansion with acoustic rhinometry 2022-10-12T15:56:02+00:00 Şule Nur Metli Mücahid Yıldırım Emire Aybüke Erdur Ömer Erdur <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cephalometric transversal measurements and nasal patency before and after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatment applied to patients with maxillary transversal deficiency.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The records of 30 patients with maxillary transversal insufficiency and 20 patients without normal dentofacial and nasal symptoms were used. Acoustic rhinometry (MCA1, MCA2, VOL1, VOL2) and cephalometry measurements (JR–JL, MMTI, nasal width) were analyzed before (TO) and six months after (T1) RME.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were no significant differences in age and gender between the groups. After the RME treatment of the patients in the study group, there was a significant increase in the cephalometric measurement (JL–JR, MMTI, nasal width) and acoustic rhinometry measurement parameters (MCA1, MCA2, VOL1, VOL2). Cephalometric measurements showed consistent changes in the patients in the study group, suggesting that RME treatment increased the maxilla’s growth capacity. The posteroanterior cephalometry results improved after RME treatment and approached those of the control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Significant improvement was observed in the cephalometric transversal measurements after RME treatment. This improvement indicated that RME increases maxillary growth capacity. There was no correlation between cephalometric and acoustic rhinometry. This result may be due to the inability of posteroanterior cephalometry to effectively evaluate the maxilla-related part of the nasal structures.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research The effect of different herbal teas on the color stability of nanohybrid and bulk-fill composites 2022-10-13T12:18:43+00:00 Makbule Tuğba Tunçdemir Zeynep Dereli Ayşe Bahar <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea and rosehip tea, on the color stability of nanohybrid and bulk-fill composite resins.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 60 disc-shaped samples were made from 2 types of A2 resin with nanohybrid (Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and bulk-fill (Filtek Bulk-Fill, 3M ESPE, MN, USA) structure with the help of 10 mm diameter and 2 mm thick Teflon molds in this study. All samples were finished and polished with 4-stage (thick, medium, fine, superfine) polishing discs (Sof-lex, 3M ESPE, MN, USA) and kept in an oven at 37 °C for 24 hours. The samples, whose initial color measurements were made by spectrophotometer, were divided into subgroups for the control group and 2 different herbal teas (Green tea, Rosehip) (n=10). Color measurements were repeated, and ΔE values were calculated. Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Bonferroni tests were used to analyze the data (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no statistically significant difference in color change between the composite resins (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). No significant color change was found for either the Tetric N-Ceram or Filtek Bulk-Fill composite resin samples immersed in distilled water (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05, ΔE&lt;3.3).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Rosehip and green tea affect the color stability of composite resin restorations. Whereas the color change caused by green tea is at a clinically acceptable level, that stemming from rosehip tea falls within clinically unacceptable levels.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research The effect of thickness and cement shade on the color match of different CAD-CAM glass-ceramic materials 2022-10-17T10:16:56+00:00 Tuba Yılmaz Savaş <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to assess the impact of the type and thickness of the ceramic and cement color on the targeted shade of glass-ceramics with various chemical compositions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Thirty ceramic specimens were prepared from leucite-reinforced (GC Initial LRF, GC Group) and lithium-disilicate (IPS e.max CAD, EM Group) materials in three different thicknesses (0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, and 1 mm). Four 4-mm-thick substrates were then made from A3-shaded composite resin material to mimic tooth structure and be utilized for cement application. Four shades (Variolink II: transparent, white, yellow, and bleach) of 0.2-mm-thick resin cement were polymerized over these substrates. Next, the specimens were placed over these substrates, and color measurements were applied with a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade V) leading to 24 group combinations (n=5). The color difference (∆E) readings were obtained in the spectrophotometer's reference shade verification mode by selecting the A2 shade standard. Three-way mixed ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analysis (α=0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The main effects of material, cement, and thickness were found to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), as were the interactions of cement×material, cement×thickness, and material×thickness (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). However, the material×cement×thickness interaction was not found to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> = 0.568). Regardless of thickness or cement shade, the GC group had a lower mean ∆E value than that of the EM group (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Lower ∆E values were achieved in both materials with a thickness of 1 mm and bleach-shaded cement (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). The materials with the greatest mean ∆E values were those with the thickness of 0.5 mm and the transparent shade cement combination (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The thickness and shade of the cement used influenced the final color of the glass-ceramic materials with the same shade and translucency but diverse chemical compositions. When compared to the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic material, the leucite-reinforced feldspathic glass-ceramic material displayed lower color difference values and a better color match with the targeted shade.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research Shear bond strength of composite to demineralized enamel conditioned with resin infiltration 2022-10-13T10:28:00+00:00 Sebahat Melike Durukan Burak Gümüştaş Soner Şişmanoğlu <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of resin infiltration on bond-strength of composite resin to demineralized enamel.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty bovine incisors were used in this study. Buccal enamel surfaces of bovine incisors were wet polished and then were divided into three groups: sound enamel; demineralized enamel; demineralized enamel infiltrated with a low-viscosity resin (ICON, DMG, Hamburg, Germany). After acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds, a two-step, total-etch adhesive (Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was applied using a microbrush for 20 seconds, followed by gentle air-drying for 5 seconds. The adhesive was light-cured for 10 seconds. Following the adhesive application, flowable composite resin (Filtek Supreme Flowable, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was gently placed into a microtubule and was photopolymerized using an LED curing unit (Elipar Deep Cure; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). The microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests were performed using a microshear testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used to analyze the data (5%).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Significant differences were found according to the ANOVA (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Pair-wise comparison results of µSBS (mean ± SD) were: sound enamel (25.16 ± 2.3); demineralized enamel (17.93 ± 2.1); demineralized enamel infiltrated with a low-viscosity resin (28.51 ± 3.76).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Resin infiltration applied to demineralized enamel before composite application increased the bond strength. No difference was found in the bond strength values obtained for sound enamel and resin infiltrated enamel.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research Evaluation of Surface Roughness of Resin Materials with Different Contents 2023-01-05T10:33:01+00:00 Turan Servi Türkay Kölüş <p><strong>Aim:</strong> &nbsp;The aim of this study is to compare the roughness level of the surfaces of polymerized temporary acrylic resin, standard 3D resin, temporary 3D resin materials with polished and unpolished conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Thirty samples of 1 cm diameter and 5 mm height cylinders of temporary 3D resin (Alias C &amp; B Temp, Dokuz Kimya) and standard 3D resin (Alias Sharp &amp; Rigid, Dokuz Kimya) were produced with 3D printer (Photon Mono X, Anycubic). Residual resins were cleaned in Wash &amp; Cure Plus (Anycubic) device using isopropyl alcohol and kept under UV light for 10 minutes in the same device to fully polymerize. Self-curing temporary acrylic resin (Imident, Imicryl) was prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and 30 samples were prepared by transferring them to moulds of the same size. Half of the samples in each material were polished for 90 seconds with the same dentist using polishing paste (Universal Polishing Paste, Ivoclar Vivadent) (n=15). The surface of each sample was measured three times with a 120˚ angle difference using a profilometer (SJ-201, Mitutoyo) and the average was taken. Levene test, t test, two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used for statistical analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was accepted for statistical significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Roughness values 1.9173±0.25078 Ra in the Unpolished Temporary 3D Resin group, 0.2807±0.13317 Ra in the Polished Temporary 3D Resin group, 0.7760±0.17175 Ra in the Unpolished Standard 3B Resin group, 0 in the Polished Standard 3D Resin group It was found to be 0.1887±0.08340 Ra, 2.4827±0.79651 Ra in the Unpolished Cold Acryl group, and 0.6307±0.22118 Ra in the Polished Cold Acryl group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The roughness of 3D printed materials is lower than that of conventional temporary acrylic resin and polishing significantly reduced roughness in all groups.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Dental Research