https://www.dental-research.com/idr/issue/feed International Dental Research 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Prof. Dr. Ozkan ADIGUZEL info@dental-research.com Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><em>International Dental Research </em>is a multidisciplinary&nbsp;double-blind peer-reviewed dental journal publishing articles in the field of dentistry. The <em>International Dental Research</em> is the official tri-annually publication (April, August, December).&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">The <em>&nbsp;International Dental Research</em> publishes scientific articles, case reports and comparison studies evaluating materials and methods of dental treatment. Dentists can learn about new concepts in dental treatment and the latest advances in techniques and instrumentation in the one journal that helps them keep pace with rapid changes in this field. The journal also aims to provide clinicians, scientists and students of dentistry with a knowledge transfer platform for rapid publication of reports through an international journal, which will be available free online. The broad coverage of current research has given the journal an international reputation as an indispensable source for both basic scientists and clinicians engaged in understanding and preventing dental disease. All articles will be critically reviewed by the editor and invited referees within 2 months. No fees are requested from the authors for submission and publication process.</p> https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/409 The effect of irrigation solutions and sterilization process on the surface properties of ProTaper Next and TruNatomy rotary files: An atomic force microscopy study 2022-05-05T09:46:07+00:00 Faruk Öztekin foztekin@firat.edu.tr Enes Elmalı enes@abc.com <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study sought to evaluate the effects of different irrigation solutions and sterilization processes on the surface properties of ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and TruNatomy (TN; Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) nickel-titanium rotary files.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 30 ProTaper Next and 30 TruNatomy files were used. Both types of files were divided into five groups. The files in three groups were dipped into 5.25% NaOCI (CanalPro, Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), BioAKT (New Tech Solutions s.r.l., Brescia, Italy), and 18% etidronic acid (Dual Rinse HEDP, Medcem, Weinfelden, Switzerland), respectively, for 5 minutes, while the files in the fourth group were exposed to five autoclave cycles. The files in the fifth (control) group did not receive any treatment. Scans were performed from five different points using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The assumption of the conformity of the quantitative variables to a normal distribution was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the quantitative measures between more than two independent groups, while the post-hoc least significant difference test was used for the pairwise comparisons (p˂0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> AFM images of the PTN and TN files in all the groups revealed surface irregularities. The root mean square (RMS) and depth values of the files dipped in NaOCI, BioAKT, and Etidronic acid were statistically higher than those of the control group (p&lt;0.05). Moreover, the RMS and depth values were statistically higher in the files that had been subjected to five autoclave cycles when compared with the control group (p&lt;0.05). The RMS values and depth values among the groups were found to be compatible.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All the applications increased the surface roughness of the PTN and TN files. The Etidronic acid and sterilization applications were found to increase the RMS and depth values ​​the most when compared with the control group.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Öztekin F, Elmalı E. The effect of irrigation solutions and sterilization process on the surface properties of ProTaper Next and TruNatomy rotary files: An atomic force microscopy study. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):39-46. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.1">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.1</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/286 Dental anxiety in COVID-19 pandemic 2021-06-17T06:26:36+00:00 Eda Çetin Özdemir drcetineda@gmail.com Emrah Bilen emrah_bln2332@hotmail.com <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to evaluate the attitudes of patients towards periodontal treatments, their anxiety levels, and awareness during the coronavirus pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Patients who applied to the periodontology department took the questionnaire. They were asked to answer questions online and anonymously, which includes questions about anxiety, willingness to participate in the treatment, and whether the coronavirus poses an increased risk with periodontal treatments. Descriptive statistics were made with percentages. The chi-square test was used for gender relations, age groups, anxiety levels, and willingness to participate in the treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 468 patients (179 males; 289 females) participated in the questionnaire. Of the individuals participating in the study, 38.5% considered themselves calm, 36.5% anxious, and 25% panic. Female anxiety levels were statistically higher than that of men (p&lt;0.05). The study results show that the level of education also contributes to the level of anxiety and that the individuals participating in the study are unwilling to receive periodontal treatment, except for a dental emergency. During the pandemic, the findings show that age and education levels are important factors about the coronavirus transmission by periodontal treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study results show that coronavirus pandemic has an effect on the anxiety level of individuals. However, they also show that the level of anxiety has subsided compared to the previous studies as the patients have gained knowledge about how to live with the pandemic, health authorities have successfully controlled the pandemic and have kept the vaccination studies ongoing. However, it was reported that they were reluctant to receive periodontal treatment and want to delay the treatment. It was stated that it may be a result of the fact that periodontal diseases are relatively painless. In addition, young people use mass media more effectively, which is why they think that periodontal diseases increase the risk of coronavirus more than older individuals.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Çetin Özdemir E, Bilen E. Dental anxiety in COVID-19 pandemic. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):47-54. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.2">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.2</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/388 Effects of different surface treatments on the compression-shear strength of CAD-CAM zirconia posts 2021-12-27T05:58:20+00:00 Murat Eskitaşçıoğlu drdtmurat@yahoo.com.tr Derya Toprak Gündüz dtg@abc.com Zelal Seyfioğlu Polat zsp@abc.com Emine Göncü Başaran agb@abc.com Emrah Ayna emrah.ayna@dicle.edu.tr <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Post systems are crucial for the treatment of endodontically treated teeth with excessive crown destruction. Currently, increase in esthetic demands has increased the use of tooth-colored post systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate compression-shear strength after the application of different resin cements and different surface treatments to zirconia post-cores produced by the CAD-CAM milling technique.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> One hundred twenty crown parts of maxillary central incisors were cut using a 2-mm enamel–cement joint using a water-cooled diamond bur in an air turbine handpiece at 300,000 rpm. Root canals with the same diameter were prepared using Gates-Glidden drills and Snowpost system drills. According to the enlarged canal, zirconia posts were prepared by the CAD-CAM copy-milling technique, and the zirconia post surfaces were roughened by different techniques (hydrofluoric acid, Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> partial abrasion, CoJet silica coating). The roughened posts were cemented to the tooth canal using three resin cements: 10-Methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-containing cement, Bis-GMA-based resin, and resin-based adhesive. As the control group, the zirconia post surfaces with no application were fixed using three resin cements. The specimens were set down into 25x25x25 mm fabricated blocks with acrylic resin materials. Compression-shear strength tests of the prepared samples were conducted on the Instron Testing Machine by using appropriate equipment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In summary, the combination of roughening techniques such as Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> partial etching and CoJet silica coating using cement-containing MDP rendered the highest compression-shear strength.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This in vitro study proposes the cementation of zirconia post-cores etched by Cojet silica coating and Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> particles using MDP-containing resin cement.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Eskitaşçıoğlu M, Toprak Gündüz D, Seyfioğlu Polat Z, Göncü Başaran E, Ayna E. Effects of different surface treatments on the compression-shear strength of CAD-CAM zirconia posts. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):55-61. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.a3">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.a3</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/397 A comparison of the effect of different forms of Graphene and Polyvinylpyrrolidone on physically strengthening PMMA 2022-01-26T10:38:15+00:00 Server Mutluay Ünal servermutluay@hotmail.com <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to compare the effects of powder, mat, and sheet forms of graphene and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the bending strength of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 75 PMMA samples (64 x 13 x 3 mm) were obtained and separated into five groups of 15, one of which was the control group. No strengthening material was added to the control group samples. In the PMMA+Polyvinylpyrrolidone powder (PVPP) (Group B) and PMMA+Graphene powder (GP) groups (Group D), PVP (0.5%) and graphene (0.01%) powders, respectively were added to the PMMA. In the PMMA+Polyvinylpryrolidone fiber mat (PVPM) (Group C) and PMMA+Graphene sheet (GS) groups (Group E), a PVP mat and graphene sheet, respectively were placed in the center of a square PMMA resin mold. To measure the samples’ resistance to bending, the three-point bending test (ISO 1567) was applied. Fracture lines were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and bending strength was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A statistically significant difference was determined between the GS (118.5093 ± 11.94859 Mpa) and PVPP (105.5267 ± 6.80595 Mpa) groups. The mean bending resistance values were numerically higher in the PVPM (115.8487 ± 17.15440), GS (118.5093 ± 11.94859), and GP (116.2680 ± 16.03207) groups compared to the control group (108.2407 ± 24.23104). The graphene sheets and PVP mats showed higher resistance to bending than the powder form of either material.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In clinical dental prosthesis use, PVP mats and graphene sheets are preferable with respect to both PMMA strengthening and color.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Mutluay Ünal S. A comparison of the effect of different forms of Graphene and Polyvinylpyrrolidone on physically strengthening PMMA. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):62-9. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.4">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.4</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/400 Evaluation of two different imaging software programs in planning orthognathic surgery cases 2022-02-18T11:21:10+00:00 Mustafa Balkı mstfblk1313@hotmail.com Mehmet Doğru drmdogru@gmail.com <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In this study, we aimed to compare the two-dimensional predictions made by two computer software packages with the postoperative values, and thus to evaluate the clinical reliability of digital orthognathic surgery planning.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Orthodontic treatment was performed before orthognathic surgery, and the same surgical team performed double-jaw orthognathic surgeries. We included 20 individuals (10 females, 10 males) with skeletal Class III malocclusion. The average age of the individuals was 21.5 years. In our study, the amount of movement was determined using reference lines on lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained from the preoperative and postoperative Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) records of 20 individuals. Prediction profiles were formed using Dolphin Imaging (Dolphin Imaging &amp; Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA) and NemoFAB 2D (Software Nemotec, S.L, Spain) computer softwares. In this way, the reliability and consistency of two-dimensional prediction software were examined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prediction profiles obtained from the computer software were compared with lateral cephalometric radiographs of the postoperative surgery results for 37 cephalometric parameters. There were no significant differences between software predictions and postoperative results in any cephalometric parameters.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The plans and predictions made with the two computer software packages were reliable and can be used clinically.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Balkı M, Doğru M. Evaluation of two different imaging software programs in planning orthognathic surgery cases. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):70-81. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.5">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.5</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/258 Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris during retreatment: R-Endo rotary instruments versus hand files 2021-01-13T01:38:26+00:00 Nazan Yırgın Akgül drnazanakgul@gmail.com Faruk Haznedaroğlu farukhaz@hotmail.com Çagla Vardar caglavardar@hotmail.com <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the amount of debris extruded during retreatment using stainless steel hand files (Hedstroem files) and R-Endo Nickel Titanium rotary instruments.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Eighty single-rooted freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were divided into two groups consisting of 40 teeth each. Retreatment was performed with R-Endo (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) and Hedstroem files (Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigeus, Switzerland). The experimental teeth were obturated with lateral condensation technique. Then, 1.5-mL Eppendorf tubes were used to collecting the material that was extruded during preparation by subtracting post-instrumentation weight from pre-instrumentation weight.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were significant differences in the amount of debris extruded between the groups (p&lt;0.001). The amount of apical extrusion in the R-Endo group was determined to be less than in the hand instrumentation group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Within the limitations of this study, it might be concluded that all tested instruments resulted in apical extrusion of debris. During endodontic retreatment procedures, the hand files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the R-Endo.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Yırgın Akgül N, Haznedaroğlu F, Vardar Ç. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris during retreatment: R-Endo rotary instruments versus hand files. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):82-7. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.6">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.6</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/277 Retention in Orthodontics: A review 2021-01-13T01:44:45+00:00 Melis Seki Yurdakul melissekiyurdakul@gmail.com Pamir Meriç pamirmeric@hotmail.com <p>Skeletal and dental correction obtained by orthodontic treatment may tend to return to the pre-treatment state. This condition is defined as relapse. The retention phase applied after treatment is important to obtain stable results. Periodontium, soft tissue pressures, growth and occlusion are among the factors affecting stability. In the last decade, interest in retention procedures has increased and it has been found that retention regimes differ from country to country. Although retention affects nearly every patient, there is minimal agreement on the most appropriate approach to be taken in an individual case. The many variations of the retention procedure, the introduction of different materials for retention, or individual patient factors are among the reasons that lead to difficulties in selecting retention protocols. Basic retention protocol is provided with removable and fixed retention appliances. For removable retention, hawley, wraparound, vacuum formed retention appliance and positioners are used. For fixed retention, rigid steel retention wire bonded to terminal teeth or flexible retention wires bonded to all teeth between 3-3 can be preferred. NiTi retention wires produced with CAD / CAM technology are also among the current materials. While fixed retention appliances do not require patient cooperation, periodontal follow-up is recommended. Patient cooperation is needed for the use of removable retention appliances, but easy cleaning of removable appliances is an advantage. ‘Adjunct’ procedures may also be applied to the teeth or surrounding periodontium to assist the retention process. For example, it involves reshaping teeth such as interproximal reduction or circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy. In this review, information about retention is discussed in the light of current literature.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Seki Yurdakul M, Meriç P. Retention in Orthodontics: A review. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):88-96. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.7">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.7</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/380 Indexes for periapical health evaluation: A review 2021-12-18T09:48:51+00:00 Reshma Rajasekhar reshmarajasekhar@gmail.com Sooraj Soman drsoorajsoman@gmail.com Varsha Maria Sebastian varshamariasbst@gmail.com Sabir Muliyar sabirmuliyar@gmail.com Nileena Mary Cherian nileenacherian@gmail.com <p>Assessment of periapical health is important for the diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of endodontic treatment outcome. Radiographic evaluation of the status of the teeth is the most common modality used for assessing the periapical condition. Therefore, different radiographic indexes have been developed, which are used widely in clinical and epidemiological studies. With the advances in imaging, three-dimensional imaging techniques using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are very popular now. Indexes based on CBCT which analyses the condition of tooth in different planes have found to give more accurate assessment of periapical conditions compared to conventional radiography. This review aims to summarize different indexes developed for assessing periapical health. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong></p> <p>Rajasekhar R, Soman S, Sebastian VM, Muliyar S, Cherian NM. Indexes for periapical health evaluation - A review. Int Dent Res 2022;12(2):97-106. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.8">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2022.vol12.no2.8</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong> The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Dental Research