International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr <p align="justify"><em>International Dental Research </em>is a multidisciplinary&nbsp;double-blind peer-reviewed dental journal publishing articles in the field of dentistry. The <em>International Dental Research</em> is the official tri-annually publication (April, August, December).&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">The <em>&nbsp;International Dental Research</em> publishes scientific articles, case reports and comparison studies evaluating materials and methods of dental treatment. Dentists can learn about new concepts in dental treatment and the latest advances in techniques and instrumentation in the one journal that helps them keep pace with rapid changes in this field. The journal also aims to provide clinicians, scientists and students of dentistry with a knowledge transfer platform for rapid publication of reports through an international journal, which will be available free online. The broad coverage of current research has given the journal an international reputation as an indispensable source for both basic scientists and clinicians engaged in understanding and preventing dental disease. All articles will be critically reviewed by the editor and invited referees within 2 months. No fees are requested from the authors for submission and publication process.</p> en-US info@dental-research.com (Prof. Dr. Ozkan ADIGUZEL) support@dental-research.com (1. Dr. Seda Falakaloglu, 2. Dr. Ceren Aktuna Belgin) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.10 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The effects of current production techniques on the surface roughness, oxide layer thickness and porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium and titanium substructures https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/387 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the oxide layer, surface roughness, and bond strength with porcelain of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) and titanium (Ti) substructures produced using casting, milling and selective laser sintering techniques.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 180 disc-shaped metal samples with a diameter of 1 cm and a thickness of 3 mm were produced. The samples were divided into six groups (n=15) according to the technique used to produce the metal substructures—casting, milling, and SLS—and the chemical composition of the metal substructure—Co-Cr and Ti. Then roughness averages (Ra) of the sample surfaced were calculated with a contact-type profilometer. Nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray was performed to ensure that the layer displayed in contrast was the oxide layer, and the average oxide layer thickness was calculated from scanning electron microscope images. Metal-porcelain complexes were subjected to shear bond strength test and failure types were noted. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare oxide layer thickness, surface roughness, and shear bond strength according to the metal and production technique, and Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test was used for multiple comparisons of the main effects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Two-way MANOVA revealed that the metal and technique used in the substructure production had significant effects on surface roughness, oxide layer thickness and shear bond strength (p &lt; 0.001). Ti groups exhibited thicker oxide layer formation than Co-Cr groups. Low surface roughness values were observed in the milling groups. The highest shear bond strength value (53.8 MPa) was observed in the Co-Cr group produced by casting, while the lowest value (32.2 MPa) was obtained in the Ti group produced by casting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It should be kept in mind that there is no ideal production technique and that the effects of the production technique differ depending on the metal used.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong>Ünalan Değirmenci B, Ersoy NM. The effects of current production techniques on the surface roughness, oxide layer thickness and porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium and titanium substructures. Int Dent Res 2021;11(3):129-39. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.1">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.1</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Beyza Ünalan Değirmenci, Nuri Murat Ersoy Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/387 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric dentistry treatment procedures https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/375 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced pediatric dentistry to limit clinical procedures due to children’s role in spread of the virus and transmission routes in pediatric patients. In order to minimize contamination and cross-infection risk, dental examinations and treatments had been postponed and patient admission protocols rearranged. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pandemic on the number of patients admitted and treated in the pediatric dentistry clinic of a university hospital in the one-year period following the March 2020 global pandemic declaration.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study included pediatric patients aged 0-14 years admitted to a pediatric dentistry clinic of a faculty of dentistry between March 2019 and March 2021 in order to compare and make a retrospective evaluation of the one-year time intervals before and after the pandemic announcement in March 2020. Children were divided into the age groups 2-6 and 7-14. Evaluation parameters were chosen as examination, radiograph (panoramic and periapical), fissure sealing or topical fluoride application, compomer, composite filling, pulpotomy, root canal treatment, prefabricated crown, tooth extraction, and space maintainer.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the study showed a statistically significant decrease in monthly average number of examinations after the declaration of the pandemic regardless of age and gender (p&lt;0.001). In both age groups, there is a proportional decrease in pulpotomy, composite filling, fissure sealant or topical fluoride application, root canal treatment, compomer filling, prefabricated crown procedures during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic, while the number of filming procedures increased proportionally (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dental clinicians were advised to take on more radical treatment options during the pandemic. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the statistical decrease in the number of procedures in the field of pediatric dentistry and treatment services on long-term community oral health.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Yüksel BN, Bezgin T. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric dentistry treatment procedures. Int Dent Res 2021;11(3):140-8. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.2">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.2</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Burcu Nihan Yüksel, Tuğba Bezgin Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/375 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of stress distribution in maxillary central incisor restored with different post materials: A three-dimensional finite element analysis based on micro-CT data https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/314 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Post-core restorations have been developed to restore and re-functionalize endodontically treated teeth. Today, post-core materials used to show stress distribution similar to a solid tooth are still being researched. This study aimed to compare the von Mises stress (σvm) distributions created by the Zirconium post (ZP), Titanium post (TP), and Glass Fiber post (GFP) materials in the permanent maxillary central incisor using finite element stress analysis (FEA).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A permanent maxillary central incisor tooth scanned using microcomputed tomography (µCT) was reconstructed, and a three-dimensional model was created. To these models, ZP, TP, and GFP were applied. Composite resin was modeled as the core structure and ceramic crown as the superstructure. Using FEA, 100 N static force was applied in three directions with vertical (F1-0°), oblique (F2-45°), and horizontal (F3-90°) angles to the models whose restoration was completed. As a result of the applied forces, the stresses on the dentine model (Dm), post model (Pm), and the cement model in between the dentine and the post (Cm) were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The maximum von Mises stress (σvm max) distribution under F1 for Dm was: ZP = 6,07888 MPa, TP = 6,35719 MPa and GFP = 6,81946 MPa. The σvm max distribution under the force F2 for Dm was: ZP = 26,6542 MPa, TP = 27,3694 MPa, and GFP = 28,4495 MPa. The σvm max distribution under the force F3 for Dm was: ZP = 34,7371 MPa, TP = 34,9828 MPa, and GFP = 35,287 MPa.</p> <p>The σvm max distribution under the force F1 for Pm was: ZP = 17,0361 MPa, TP = 13,1567 MPa, and GFP = 7,85452 MPa. The σvm max distribution under the force F2 for Pm was: ZP = 73,7999 MPa, TP = 52,0089 MPa, and GFP = 25,9903 MPa. The σvm max distribution under the force F3 for Pm was: ZP = 78,8934 MPa, TP = 55,0424 MPa, and GFP = 27,1787 MPa.</p> <p>The σvm max distribution under the force F1 for Cm was: ZP = 7,95074 MPa, TP = 6,66092 MPa, and GFP = 4,60832 MPa. The σvm max distribution under the force F2 for Cm was: ZP = 16,8296 MPa, TP = 16,8514 MPa, and GFP = 16,526 MPa. The σvm max distribution under the force F3 for Cm was: ZP = 17, 5577 MPa, TP = 16,891 MPa, and GFP = 16,5209 MPa.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In all three forces, the highest σvm max was at ZP, and the least was at GFP. ZP and TP accumulated forces internally rather than transmitting them to the tooth tissue. GFP distributed the forces more homogeneously to the dentine.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: Y</strong>eniçeri Özata M, Adıgüzel Ö, Falakaloğlu S. Evaluation of stress distribution in maxillary central incisor restored with different post materials: A three-dimensional finite element analysis based on micro-CT data. Int Dent Res 2021;11(3):149-57. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.3">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.3</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Merve Yeniçeri Özata, Özkan Adıgüzel, Seda Falakaloğlu Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/314 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of different and novel heat-treated nickel-titanium rotary file systems at the intracanal temperature https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/288 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of different heat-treated nickel-titanium rotary systems at intracanal temperature.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 90 OneCurve (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France), VDW.ROTATE (VDW Dental, Munich, Germany), Typhoon (Clinician’s Choice, New Milford, CT, USA), HyFlex EDM (Coltene/Whaledent AG, Altstatten, Switzerland), and EndoArt Gold and Blue (Inci Dental, Istanbul, Turkey) (n = 15) rotary files (#25/0.06) were tested at intracanal temperature (35.5 ℃) using a dynamic model in a stainless-steel artificial canal with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, 60° angle of curvature, and 2 mm radius of curvature. Testing was conducted until fracturing, at which time the device stopped automatically, and the number of rotations was calculated as seconds. Lengths of fractured parts were measured using a digital caliper. One-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare the groups. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation was performed to confirm the types of fracture.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> EndoArt Blue group had a significantly higher mean time to fracture in all groups, followed by the HyFlex EDM, VDW.ROTATE, OneCurve, EndoArt Gold, and Typhoon. In addition, the HyFlex EDM and VDW.ROTATE groups had no significant differences between each other and were significantly better than the others. No significant differences were found between the OneCurve, EndoArt Gold, and Typhoon groups (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first study in the literature for EndoArt NiTi files and the second study for VDW.ROTATE that evaluated cyclic fatigue resistance. Novel EndoArt Blue files exhibited significantly greater cyclic fatigue resistance than the other NiTi files.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Güneç HG, Keskin NB, Haznedaroğlu F. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of different and novel heat-treated nickel-titanium rotary file systems at intracanal temperature. Int Dent Res 2021;11(3):158-64.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.4">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.4</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Hüseyin Gürkan Güneç, Neslihan Büşra Keskin, Faruk Haznedaroğlu Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/288 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the demographic profile of patients with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses: A retrospective clinical study https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/289 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In this study, the aim is to evaluate the demographic profile as well as clinical aspects of patients who received implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDP) between 2016 and 2019 years.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong>Among 150 patients with implant-supported FDP, 120 contacted patients were included in the study. The patients were examined in terms of gender, age groups, edentulism, restoration type, implant location, implant survival rate, and abutment type by using the computer software. Data results were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Three hundred and six dental implants were evaluated in a total of 120 patients, 55 men, and 65 women. The average age of the patients was 49.61 ± 11.84, and the most common dental implant application was in the 51–60 age group. Dental implants were frequently applied to the posterior mandible, and 31.9% of them were applied to patients in the 51–60 age group. A 94.8% implant survival rate was observed. A significant difference was found among age groups with laser-sintered metal-ceramics (LSMC) and all-ceramics (p&lt;0.05). LSMC was the most common type of restoration, and straight abutments were frequently used.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although the survival rate of dental implants is high, implants with a medium length and diameter are frequently used. The type of restoration, type of abutment, and implant location in implant-supported FDP vary depending on the age and gender of the patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Demirci F, Tanık A. Evaluation of the demographic profile of patients with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses: A retrospective clinical study. Int Dent Res 2021;11(3):165-71. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no1.5">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no1.5</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Fatih Demirci, Abdulsamet Tanık Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/289 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study of the 5 mm-layer Vickers hardness model with bulk-fill resin-based composites https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/292 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to compare the Vickers hardness numbers (VHNs) of two bulk-fill resin-based composites (BFRBC) and a conventional hybrid resin-based composite (RBC) through the layers of a 5mm thickness model with two different light-curing time intervals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In the present study, a sonic-activated and dual-cure BFRBC, and a conventional hybrid RBC were used. Semi-cylindrical specimens 4 mm in radius and 5 mm in height were prepared using a two-piece stainless-steel mold (n=10). The BFRBCs allowed a single 5mm increment to be introduced into the molds, whereas hybrid RBC was incremented (2+2+1 mm). Two different time intervals were applied for the light-curing (irradiance of 1200 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>) of each material (hybrid-sonic-activated bulk-fill, 20 s and 40 s; dual-cure bulk-fill, 7 s and 15 s). VHN measurements were carried out from top to bottom at every 1 mm of the specimen thickness. Data were analyzed using three-way and two-way ANOVA for the VHN and bottom/top ratios and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (p=0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> For each layer and time interval groups, there was a significant difference between the materials. The highest VHN was found within hybrid groups, whereas dual-cure bulk-fill groups showed the lowest results. Sonic-activated bulk-fill had the lowest bottom/top ratios, which were significantly different from those of the other materials. There was no significant difference between the different time intervals for bottom/top ratios within each material.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Increased irradiation intervals positively affected the VHN of hybrid and dual-cure bulk-fill. BFRBCs showed clinically acceptable bottom/top hardness ratios.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Aytaç Bal F, Ağaccıoğlu M, Demir O. A comparative study of the 5 mm-layer Vickers hardness model with bulk-fill resin-based composites. Int Dent Res 2021;11(2):172-9. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.6">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.6</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Fatma Aytaç Bal, Merve Ağaccıoğlu, Osman Demir Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/292 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular detection of E. faecalis in oral samples of a population associated with secondary endodontic infection https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/373 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in samples of oral rinse and tongue dorsum of endodontic patients with secondary/persistent infections (EPSI) using the PCR method.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Oral rinse samples (ORS) and tongue swab samples (TSS) of 22 patients (EPSI group) and 32 healthy individuals (control group) were collected. DNA isolation from the TSS and ORS samples was performed using the modified classical phenol-chloroform and chloroform method. To detect E. faecalis strains directly from the TSS and ORS samples, the 310 base pair (bp) segment of the 16S rDNA of the E. faecalis genome was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The prevalence of E. faecalis was compared between healthy and sick individuals using the Chi-square test, significance was set at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the ORS samples, there was a significant difference between the healthy individuals (n = 11, 34%) and the EPSI group (n = 15, 68%) in terms of the presence of E. faecalis (p = 0.026). In the TSS, the presence of E. faecalis was also investigated, and a significant difference was found between healthy individuals (n = 3, 9%) and the EPSI group (n = 11, 50%) (p = 0.001). In the EPSI group, no statistically significant difference was present in the prevalence rate of E. faecalis between the samples of ORS (68%) and TSS (50%) (p = 0.358).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of E. faecalis was found to be statistically significantly higher in multi-site oral samples of a population with secondary endodontic infection than healthy individuals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Kesim B, Tezcan Ülger S, Cudal H, Aslan G, Ersoy L, Aslan T, Küçük MÖ. Molecular detection of E. faecalis in oral samples of a population associated with secondary endodontic infection. Int Dent Res 2021;11(3):180-4. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.7">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.7</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Bertan Kesim, Seda Tezcan Ülger, Hamza Cudal, Gönül Aslan, Leyla Ersoy, Tuğrul Aslan, Mustafa Öner Küçük Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/373 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The evaluation of panoramic, periapical, and cephalometric radiographic errors in dentistry https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/294 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to determine the effects of working days and hours on panoramic and periapical radiographic errors and investigate the association between patient-induced cephalometric radiographic errors and skeletal malocclusions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Obtained from archives of Manisa Dental Health Center, 1402 periapical, 1329 panoramic, and 309 cephalometric radiographs were investigated retrospectively between January-June 2018, and the radiographic errors were determined. Periapical, panoramic, and total errors were grouped according to the number of radiographs, day intensity, and acquisition date and time for each day. Cephalometric radiographs were not included to determine the effects of working hours and days on radiographic errors since the radiographs were taken over the weekend. Patient-induced cephalometric radiographic errors were investigated under the classification of skeletal malocclusions. The independent sample t-test was used to investigate the average range difference between two independent groups for normally distributed variables. However, in situations where the assumption of normality was not met, the Mann-Whitney U test was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total errors were mostly detected on Tuesday (p=0.035). Errors of panoramic and periapical radiographs acquired in the afternoon were higher than those of the radiographs acquired before noon only on Monday (p=0.024, p=0.035). The most common errors observed in periapical radiographs were the positioning errors (23.9%) and cone cut (17.3%), respectively. The most common errors observed in panoramic radiographs were chin tipped high (17.00%), and head turned to one side (9.9%), respectively. Among Class I, II, and III malocclusions, open lips were observed as the most frequent cephalometric radiographic errors (28.6, 15.4, and 16.1%, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The percentage of radiographic errors increases with the intense workload. An anatomical structure may lead to patient-induced cephalometric radiographic errors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Titiz S, Evirgen Ş. The evaluation of panoramic, periapical, and cephalometric radiographic errors in dentistry. Int Dent Res 2021;11(3):185-94. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.8">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.no3.8</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Serap Titiz, Şehrazat Evirgen Copyright (c) 2021 International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/idr/article/view/294 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000