International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr <p align="justify"><em>International Dental Research </em>is a multidisciplinary&nbsp;double-blind peer-reviewed dental journal publishing articles in the field of dentistry. The <em>International Dental Research</em> is the official tri-annually publication (April, August, December).&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">The <em>&nbsp;International Dental Research</em> publishes scientific articles, case reports and comparison studies evaluating materials and methods of dental treatment. Dentists can learn about new concepts in dental treatment and the latest advances in techniques and instrumentation in the one journal that helps them keep pace with rapid changes in this field. The journal also aims to provide clinicians, scientists and students of dentistry with a knowledge transfer platform for rapid publication of reports through an international journal, which will be available free online. The broad coverage of current research has given the journal an international reputation as an indispensable source for both basic scientists and clinicians engaged in understanding and preventing dental disease. All articles will be critically reviewed by the editor and invited referees within 2 months. No fees are requested from the authors for submission and publication process.</p> International Dental Research en-US International Dental Research 2146-1767 The Implant stability and bone height changes for immediately loaded single implant-retained mandibular overdentures with locator attachments https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/135 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of attachment placement on initial stability and bone height changes for immediately loaded single-implants retaining mandibular overdentures.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Twenty edentulous patients were recruited for this study; 9 females (45.0%) and, 11 males (55.0%)&nbsp; (age ranged from 59.0 to 70.0 year). Single endoosseos implant was inserted in the mandibular midline region. Immediately after surgery; Locator abutment was secured on the implant and the male housing was connected intraorally using direct pick-up procedure. Marginal bone height measurements and implant stability values were assessed at the time of implant placement (baseline), 2,4,6,8, 12, 24 weeks then every 6-month interval up to 18 months post-implant placement.&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The implant stability values decreased markedly from the baseline, during 4 weeks and, then increased gradually until reaching the initial values after 12 weeks followed by continuous increase to study’s end (p&lt;0.05). The peri-implant marginal bone level revealed an acceptable range of bone loss with a statistically significant differences between different follow-up times and it continued to the end of the study (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Retaining an overdenture by immediately loaded single implant could be a successful treatment option for mandibular edentulous arches, especially in people with limited financial resources. The use of Locator attachment seemed to have a favorable effect on implant stability and marginal bone around immediately loaded single implant mandibular overdenture after 18-months of function.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Abdel-Khalek EA, El Mekawy N. Implant stability and bone height changes for immediately loaded single implant-retained mandibular overdentures with locator attachments. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):96-104.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Elsayed Abdallah Abdel-Khalek Nesreen El Mekawy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 96 104 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.1 Effects of the geometric shape and placing length of a fiber post on the stress distribution in a mandibular premolar tooth: A finite element analysis study https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/131 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two geometrically different fiber post systems and two different placing lengths on the stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Four different mandibular premolar tooth models were created. These models were restored using oval or circular fiber posts with two different placing lengths. An oblique force of 300 N was applied to the top of the tooth, and von Mises stress evaluations were carried out on the dentin tissue, luting cement, and fiber posts.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The maximum von Mises stresses were observed in the 10-mm long circular fiber post model, while the minimum stresses were seen in the 5-mm long oval fiber post model. In general, the oval fiber post models presented more homogeneous stresses than the circular fiber post models. Moreover, the 10-mm long fiber post models generated greater von Mises stresses than the 5-mm long fiber post models in the dentin tissue and luting cement.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the study findings, the use of oval fiber posts at both placing lengths is suggested for oval shaped root canals due to the lower stress concentrations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Aslan T, Esim E, Kılıç K, Er Ö, Yıldırım Ş. Effects of the geometric shape and placing length of a fiber post on the stress distribution in a mandibular premolar tooth: A finite element analysis study Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):105-10.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Tuğrul Aslan Emir Esim Kerem Kılıç Özgür Er Şahin Yıldırım ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 105 110 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.2 Evaluation of dentinal micro-cracks caused by the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next and Reciproc rotary file systems used in root canal preparation https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/130 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In this study, we compared the occurrence of dentinal micro-cracks after use of the ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer), and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) nickel–titanium rotary file systems in root canal preparation.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> One hundred mandibular anterior teeth were divided into five groups of 20 specimens each. Group 1 served as a control, with no intervention. In group 2, preparation was performed using the step-back technique and K files. In groups 3–5, root canal preparation was performed using the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Reciproc file systems, respectively. Following preparation, specimens were sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm using a Minitom precision cut-off machine. The sections were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. The following scoring system was used to rate specimens: 1, no micro-crack; 2, incomplete micro-crack; and 3, vertical root fracture. The results were statistically assessed (<em>p</em> ≤ 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> No micro-crack formation was observed in groups 1 and 2. The highest rate of micro-crack formation was observed in specimens prepared with the ProTaper Universal file system (20%), followed by those prepared with the Reciproc (11.7%) and ProTaper Next (6.7%) file systems. However, no significant difference was detected among groups (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). In the groups ProTaper Universal and Reciproc files were used, 1 vertical root fracture was found in 9 mm sections for each.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considering the limitations of in vitro studies, we can conclude that all rotary file systems used in this study led to dentinal micro-crack formation in roots. The ProTaper Universal file system caused more dentinal micro-cracking than did the ProTaper Next and Reciproc file systems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Deveci Taç M, Kaya S, Falakaloğlu S. Evaluation of dentinal micro-cracks caused by the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next and Reciproc rotary file systems used in root canal preparation. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):111-16.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Meltem Deveci Taç Sadullah Kaya Seda Falakaloğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 111 116 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.3 The The effect of different solutions and thermocycling on the Vickers hardness of acrylic resin denture teeth https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/136 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artificial saliva, disinfectant solution, distilled water, and thermocycling on Vickers hardness of 4 commercial brands of acrylic resin denture teeth.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Four different brands of acrylic resin denture teeth (Major Dent, Acry Lux, Acry Rock, Imident Lux) were evaluated. 15 anterior and 15 posterior teeth of each group embedded in autopolymerized acrylic resin.&nbsp; The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and the vestibule surfaces of anterior teeth were flattened by using silicon carbide paper. After polishing, microhardness measurements were repeated three times for each teeth. The teeth were submitted to different conditions: (1) storage in distilled water at 37±2°C for 7 days; (2) storage in artificial saliva at 37±2°C for 30 days and (3) storage in 1 % sodium hypochlorite. After, thermal cycling between 5 and 55 °C for 2500 cycles was made. The microhardness measurements were repeated. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan test (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were statistically significant differences between initial and final microhardness values of different brands of acrylic resin denture teeth. Anterior teeth showed lower microhardness values than posterior teeth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Storage in different solutions and thermal cycling significantly reduced the Vickers hardness of the acrylic resin denture teeth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Özdemir H, Duymuş ZY. The effect of different solutions and thermocycling on the Vickers hardness of acrylic resin denture teeth. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):117-22.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Hatice Özdemir Zeynep Yeşil Duymuş ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 117 122 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.4 Preference for different lip positions in a Turkish population https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/141 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Aim:</strong> This study evaluated the preferences for different lip positions among dental students, dentists, laypersons, and patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Average female and male silhouette profiles were constructed from published soft tissue data for the Turkish population. The lips in each average profile were protruded or retruded in 2 mm increments with respect to Ricketts’ E-line. Five images were created from the average profile and arranged randomly. Then, 54 dental students, 55 dentists, 46 laypersons, and 60 orthodontic patients were asked to rate each silhouette profile from 1 (least attractive) to 10 (most attractive). The independent <em>t</em>-test was used to analyze the effect of gender on preference and one-way analysis of variance was used to determine whether there were differences among the groups.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The dentists favored profile ‘a’ (+2 mm protruded), while the other groups favored profile ‘e’ (average profile) in both sexes. Profile ‘d’ was the least favored profile, except in the dentists group. For the dental students, profile ‘d’ was the least favored of the male profiles and ‘c’ was the least favored of the female profiles. There were significant differences among the groups when assessing male profiles ‘a’, ‘c’ (<em>p</em>&lt;0.01), and ‘b’ (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The average profile image was favoured and the image that showed slight (+2 mm) lip protrusion was preferred second. All rater groups tolerated changes of ±2 mm with respect to the average lip position.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Bor S, Kazancı F, Adıgüzel A. Preference for different lip positions in a Turkish population. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):123-30.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.&nbsp;</p> Sabahattin Bor Fatih Kazancı Artemisa Adıgüzel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 123 130 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.5 Effects of surface treatments on the bond strength of glass hybrid restorative system repaired with hybrid composite resin https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/143 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To assess the bonding strength of the Equia Forte resin modified glass ionomer cement to the hybrid composite material by applying different surface treatments.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 140 samples as 70 Equia Forte and 70 G-eanial composites were produced as 8 mm diameter 3 mm high cylindrical standardized samples. The samples were divided into 7 groups to treat surfaces. G-eanial composite resins as 4 mm diameter 3 mm high was placed onto the samples and polymerized. Then 1000 thermal cycle was applied and samples were mounted in the universal testing machine. Obtained bond strength values were recorded as Newton. One way Anova and Scheffe post hoc tests were performed for statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the G-aenial group, the highest bond strength was obtained with laser-bond method (N=17.71, P&lt;0.05) and the lowest bonding strength was obtained with only laser-treated method (N=3.45, P&lt;0.05). In the Equia group, the highest bond strength was obtained with air abrasion-bond method (N=9.29, P&lt;0.05) and the lowest bonding strength was obtained with only laser-treated method (N=0.00, P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fact that sufficient bond strength could not be reached by any surface treatment in Equia Forte may suggest that replacing the Equia Forte instead of repairs may be a better choice.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Arıcıoğlu B, Hatipoğlu Ö. Effects of surface treatments on the bond strength of glass hybrid restorative system repaired with hybrid composite resin. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):131-8.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Banu Arıcıoğlu Ömer Hatipoğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 131 138 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.6 Evaluation of medial lingual foramen with cone-beam computed tomography in a Turkish adult population https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/146 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study is to characterize the anatomical findings of the MLF in a Turkish population, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The CBCT images of 350 untreated patients (164 male, 186 female ranging in age between 18 and 65) were included in this study. The distribution of MLFs were determined in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes by considering gender and side. For statistical evaluation, a <em>chi-square test</em> was used to analyze independent samples. <em>P</em>&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>At least 1 canal was observed in all subjects (n = 350). The most common result was a single canal. Among the 164 male patients (46.86%), 98 had 1 canal (59.75%); 59 had 2 canals (35.97%); and 7 had 3 canals (4.26%). Among the 186 female patients (53.14%), 134 (72.04%) had 1 conduit or canal; 49 (26.34%) had 2 canals; and only 3 case (1.61%) presented with 3 canals. Difference between genders was statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Vascular canals and anastomoses presence in anterior mandible which are sufficient for severe hemorrhage complications. The distribution of MLFs must be taken into account during presurgical planning.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Laçin N, Tatar B, Veli İ, Adıgüzel A. Evaluation of medial lingual foramen with cone-beam computed tomography in a Turkish adult population. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):139-43.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Nihat Laçin Birkan Tatar İlknur Veli Artemisa Adıgüzel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 139 143 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.7 An evaluation using micro-CT data of the stress formed in the crown and periodontal tissues from the use of PEEK post and PEEK crown: A 3D finite element analysis study https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/125 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Metal-supported ceramics as crown material and glass fiber posts as dental post materials are in frequent current use. In recent years, it has been claimed that stress-based biomechanical problems in dentistry can be resolved with the benefit of the low elasticity modulus of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) material. The aim of this study was to use finite element analysis (FEA) to compare the stresses formed by forces applied after the use of PEEK material as dental post and crown material as an alternative to glass fiber posts and metal-supported ceramic crowns.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The stress analysis method used in this study was FEA. First, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images were obtained of a maxillary central incisor tooth and the data of the post materials scanned with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner were uploaded to a computer program. 3D models were obtained with designs made in the computer program of all the materials. The modelling of a maxillary central tooth was completed using 2 different post materials (glass fiber and PEEK) and 2 different crown materials (metal ceramic and PEEK) and 4 groups were formed for analysis. By applying force of 100 N at 135<sup>o</sup> from the absolute central point of the palatinal surface of the tooth, the stress values and distribution occurring in the 3D periodontal models were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The use of PEEK post reduced the stresses occurring on the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the cortical bone, and caused no significant change in the stresses on the crown. The use of PEEK crown reduced the stresses occurring on the crown and increased the stresses occurring on the PDL and cortical bone.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>With further in vitro and clinical studies of PEEK material, it can be considered that within a short time PEEK post and PEEK crown could be in routine use in dentistry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Tekin S, Adıgüzel Ö, Cangül S. An evaluation using micro-CT data of the stress formed in the crown and periodontal tissues from the use of PEEK post and PEEK crown: A 3D finite element analysis study. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):144-50.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Samet Tekin Özkan Adıgüzel Suzan Cangül ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 144 150 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.8 Dual surface impression for management of mandibular flat ridge in an elderly patient: A Case Report https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/142 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This article described a physiological impression technique to design denture surfaces by the action of the surrounding musculature during functional movements based on "neutral zone concept" in patients with severely atrophied mandibular ridge.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Dual surface impression technique was employed for the fitting and polished surface using silicone impression material.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This technique provided a stable base with correct borders to perform all functional movements of the lips, cheeks, and tongue.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The patient improved the ability to maintain the adaptive muscle behaviors necessary to control the denture movement in function and rest.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article: </strong>Abdel-Khalek EA, Said MM. Dual surface impression for management of mandibular flat ridge in an elderly patient: A Case Report. Int Dent Res 2018;8(3):151-4.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Elsayed Abdallah Abdel-Khalek Mohamed Moustafa Said ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 8 3 151 154 10.5577/intdentres.2018.vol8.no3.9