International Dental Research https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr <p align="justify"><em>International Dental Research </em>is a multidisciplinary&nbsp;double-blind peer-reviewed dental journal publishing articles in the field of dentistry. The <em>International Dental Research</em> is the official tri-annually publication (April, August, December).&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">The <em>&nbsp;International Dental Research</em> publishes scientific articles, case reports and comparison studies evaluating materials and methods of dental treatment. Dentists can learn about new concepts in dental treatment and the latest advances in techniques and instrumentation in the one journal that helps them keep pace with rapid changes in this field. The journal also aims to provide clinicians, scientists and students of dentistry with a knowledge transfer platform for rapid publication of reports through an international journal, which will be available free online. The broad coverage of current research has given the journal an international reputation as an indispensable source for both basic scientists and clinicians engaged in understanding and preventing dental disease. All articles will be critically reviewed by the editor and invited referees within 2 months. No fees are requested from the authors for submission and publication process.</p> en-US info@dental-research.com (Prof. Dr. Ozkan ADIGUZEL) support@dental-research.com (1. Dr. Seda Falakaloglu, 2. Dr. Ceren Aktuna Belgin) Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Effects of abutment materials on the tissues surrounding dental implants immediately after loading: An in vivo study https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/345 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PEEK abutments, an alternative to titanium abutments, with temporary acrylic restorations using immediate loading protocol on the marginal bone loss and peri-implant tissues.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study was performed with temporary restorations using 32 titanium and PEEK abutments (14 titanium and 18 PEEK) on 32 implants performed on 21 patients (13 females, 8 males). Before surgical placement of the implants, intraoral and radiographic examinations were performed. The patients were divided into two groups as titanium abutment group (Grup Ti) and PEEK abutment group (Grup PEEK). In both groups, all implants were placed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. After surgery, impressions were taken using polyvinyl siloxane impression material and closed tray impression technique. The gingiva, which is thought to be formed on the model, was scraped and screwed onto the appropriate titanium or PEEK abutment analogue according to the groups and temporary restoration was prepared and applied on the implant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the statistical analysis show that abutment types have no significant effect on ISQ values (p&gt;0.05), but the diameter of the implant significantly affected ISQ values independently from abutment type (p&lt;0.05). Less marginal bone loss was observed in the PEEK abutment group compared to the titanium abutment group (p&lt;005), and similar results were obtained in both groups in terms of periodontal scores (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Within the limitations of this study, there was less bone loss in the PEEK abutment group (p&lt;0.05). There was no difference between PEEK and titanium abutments in terms of ISQ values and clinical evaluations (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Gül İ, Zortuk M, Öztürk C. Effects of abutment materials on the tissues surrounding dental implants immediately after loading: An in vivo study­. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):1-6. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.1">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.1</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> İlkay Gül, Mustafa Zortuk, Caner Öztürk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/345 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of removable functional orthodontic apparatus on mandibular condyle bone quality https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.2 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to compare the impact of dynamic functional orthodontic appliances on mandibular condyle bone density in patients with Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusion during their growth and development phases.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The histories of patients with three separate malocclusions who received dynamic functional orthodontic appliance treatment were analyzed in this retrospective study. Twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into four groups: maxillary expansion devices (Group A), twinblock/monoblock devices (Group B), face masks (Group C), and chincups (Group D). The fractal analysis approach was used to determine the mandibular condyle bone density by analyzing panoramic films taken from the patients at the beginning (T0) and end (T1) of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In Groups A and B, the results of the mandibular condyle bone fractal analysis decreased at the end of treatment compared with the pre-treatment results (p &lt; 0.05). In Groups C and D, the post-treatment results were better than the pre-treatment ones (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Among the different malocclusion groups, some dynamic functional orthodontic appliances (maxillary expansion and twinblock/monoblock devices) enabled an increase in bone density in the mandibular condyle, while some (face masks and chincups) decreased the density. It is important to conduct orthodontic treatment by analyzing the results obtained with the use of these appliances.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Yüzbaşıoğlu Ertuğrul B. Effects of removable functional orthodontic apparatus on mandibular condyle bone quality. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):7-11. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.2">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.2</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Betül Yüzbaşıoğlu Ertuğrul ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.2 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the accuracy of three different electronic apex locators used in root canals enlarged in different apical diameters https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/330 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of three apex locators in enlarged teeth with different apical diameters using files that are compatible and incompatible with the apical diameters.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sixty lower premolars were used in this study. The actual canal length was determined with a stereo microscope, and the teeth were divided into three different groups (G25, G40 and G50).</p> <p>The teeth in G25, G40 and G50 were enlarged in actual canal length with apical diameters of 0.25, 0.40 and 0.50 mm using hand files and Reciproc R25, R40, and R50, respectively. In the electronic measurements, a #15 hand file was used in each group, and #25, #40 and #50 hand files that were compatible with the apical diameters of the teeth in the groups were used. An alginate model was created with enlarged teeth. The electronic working length was determined for each tooth using Root ZX Mini, Raypex 6, and Propex Pixi electronic apex locators (EALs).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Electronic measurement results that were shorter by 0.50 mm or longer by 0.05 mm than the actual length were considered unsuccessful; otherwise, they were deemed successful. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the accuracy of the EALs with different files in the same apical diameter. For the different apical diameters, the chi-square exact test was used to evaluate the accuracy effect of using files that were incompatible with each apical diameter. The level of significance was p &gt; 0.05.</p> <p>In all the groups, the measured lengths were closer to the actual canal length with the use of #25, #40 and #50 hand files that were compatible with the apical diameters. However, there was no significant difference between the measurements with the #15 hand file (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p>According to the electronic measurement results made with the #15 hand file in teeth with 0.25, 0.40 and 0.50 apical diameters, the use of a file that was incompatible with the apical diameter did not have a significant effect on accuracy (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of a file that is compatible with the apical diameter of the tooth in the determination of the working length with measurement of EALs close to the actual canal length. The accuracy of EALs is not affected by the file size in electronic measurements with file sizes smaller than the apical diameter in teeth with apical diameters up to 0.50 mm.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Öz H, Adıgüzel Ö, Kaya S. Comparison of the accuracy of three different electronic apex locators used in root canals enlarged in different apical diameters. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):12-8. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.3">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.3</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hasan Öz, Özkan Adıgüzel, Sadullah Kaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/330 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of nanohardness values of dual-cure, bulk-fill composite resins at different time intervals https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/376 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface hardness of dual-cure, bulk-fill composite resins at different depths and time intervals using nanoindentation.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In the study, a comparison was conducted of the nanohardness values of Fill-Up, HyperFIL, and Cention N dual-cure, bulk-fill composite resins in the experimental group and Reveal HD, a light-cured, bulk-fill composite, in the control group. The dual-cure, bulk-fill composites used in the experimental group were divided into two subgroups. The first group was polymerized with an LED light source, and the second group was chemically polymerized in line with the manufacturer's instructions. The dual-cure composite resins were prepared in two different depths, 5 mm and 10 mm. In the control group, specimens with a depth of 5 mm were prepared, and their polymerization was provided by an LED light source. The nanohardness values of the lower and upper surfaces of the samples were measured using the Hysitron TI 950 Triboindenter 24 hrs and 7 days after polymerization.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Following statistical evaluations, no statistically significant difference was found between the nanohardness values measured 24 hrs and 7 days after light or chemical polymerization of the dual-cured, bulk-fill composite resins. It was observed that light polymerization of HyperFIL and Fill-Up dual-cure, bulk-fill composite resins had no effect on nanohardness values. When Cention N dual-cure, bulk-fill composite resin was polymerized with a light source, higher values of nanohardness were obtained.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was determined that the investigated dual-cure, bulk-fill composites reached their final hardness after 24 hrs. In all groups, it was observed that the highest nanohardness values belonged to Cention N for both polymerization methods.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Bolgül B, Özdemir E. Investigation of nanohardness values of dual cure bulk-fill composite resins at different time intervals. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):19-25. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.4">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.4</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eda Özdemir, Behiye Bolgül ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/376 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Shortening of bones using novel contraction osteogenesis device: An experimental study https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/331 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Given the high complication rates associated with orthognathic surgery for the correction of maxillomandibular malformations, studies have focused on alternative methods of strengthening the jaw, such as distraction osteogenesis. However, methods of shortening of the jaw are not well-elucidated in oral and maxillofacial surgery practice. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of a new method of shortening osteotomized jaws.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A 2.5–3&nbsp;cm skin incision was made on the left tibia of each of 15 New Zealand white rabbits aged 12–18 months, followed by fixation of 15&nbsp;mm pre-opened distractor devices to the tibia after osteotomy. After a five-day latency period, the distractors were activated to a total of 8&nbsp;mm, with closure of the device set at a rate of 0.25&nbsp;mm/day in the test group. After a five-day latency period, the distractors closed at a rate of 0.125&nbsp;mm/day, achieving a total contraction of 5&nbsp;mm. The distractors were not activated in the control group. The bone at the contraction range was evaluated, and the resultant shortening was measured.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The tibia was shortened by an average of 4.32&nbsp;mm. Exaggerated bone formation was identified around the osteotomized cortical bone in all rabbits in the control and study groups, and there were minimal complication rates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study verified that the jaw can be shortened by performing slow, controlled contraction with a bone resorption pattern.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Ocak H, Kılıç E. Alkan A, Shortening of the bones using a novel contraction osteogenesis device: An experimental study. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):26-31. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.5">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.5</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Hakan Ocak, Erdem Kılıç, Alper Alkan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/331 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of the effect of different application techniques on microhardness in bulk-fill composite resins https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/332 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different application techniques on microhardness in one universal resin material and three different bulk-fill composite resin materials.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, one universal composite resin (Universal Restorative 200 [U], 3M-ESPE, USA) and three different bulk-fill composite resins (Filtek-One Bulk-Fill Restorative [F]; 3M-ESPE, USA: Tetric Evo-Ceram Bulk-Fill [E]; and Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechtenstein; Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill [N], Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechtenstein) materials were used. A total of 60 disk-shaped samples, including 20 samples from each bulk-fill composite resin group, were prepared. The polymerization of the bulk-fill composite resins in one group was completed using a 2 mm (40 sec) + 2 mm (40 sec) incremental technique, and in the other group, it was completed using a 4 mm bulk technique (40 sec). The U composite resin (control group) polymerization was completed using a 2 mm + 2 mm (40 sec) incremental technique (n = 10). The Vickers microhardness (VHN) values ​​of the samples were calculated. The data were analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Higher VHN values ​​were found in the U composite resin compared to those in the bulk-fill composite resins (p &lt; 0.05). In the bulk technique, a lower VHN value ​​was observed in the N bulk-fill composite resin than in the control group (p &lt; 0.05), while there was no difference between the N and E composite resin groups (p &gt; 0.05). A lower N bulk-fill composite resin was observed in the groups in which the incremental technique was applied than in the control group (p &lt; 0.05). When the techniques applied to the bulk-fill composite resins were evaluated within themselves, higher VHN values ​​were observed in the E composite resin in the group in which the incremental technique was applied but not in the group in which the bulk was applied.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was observed that the content differences of composite resins were effective at different VHN values. The U composite resin (control) group showed higher VHN values than all the bulk-fill composite groups.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Fidan M, Gönder HY. Investigation of the effect of different application techniques on microhardness in bulk-fill composite resins. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):32-7. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.6">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.6</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Muhammet Fidan, Hakan Yasin Gönder ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/332 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Is Google Trends a reliable way to determine digital dental epidemiology? https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/333 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Google Trends, which allows Internet users to interact with and search data, can provide in-depth information about new phenomena regarding population and health-related behavior and is a tool that can be accessed free of charge. With the widespread use of dental implants in almost every country in the world today, an increase has also been reported in the prevalence of peri-implantitis (PP), which is a peri-implant disease. The aim of this study is to determine whether the rates of PP that were obtained from previous studies on this disease are in line with the data obtained using Google Trends.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Using observational, ecological research, we searched Google Trends for the following query terms: peri implantitis + periimplantitis, to obtain the volume of this Internet search query. The queries were searched within Spain (ES), Germany (DE), the Netherlands (NL), the United Kingdom (UK), and Turkey from January 2010 to December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> An examination of the search results for “peri-implantitis + peri-implantitis” on Google Trends found that the largest numbers of searches for these words were made from the country of ES, and the smallest numbers were made from Turkey. It took two years to make forecasts based on the results, and the study determined that there has been a change in the trends in countries that were searched for these words. Also, the results obtained in previous studies for the prevalence of peri-implantitis were not similar to the data obtained from Google Trends.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded in this study that Google Trends is not a reliable tool for dental epidemiology.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Üner DD, İzol BS. Is Google Trends a reliable way to determine digital dental epidemiology? Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):38-46. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.7">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.7</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Devrim Deniz Üner, Bozan Serhat İzol ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/333 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of mesenchymal stem cells, demineralized bone graft and platelet-rich plasma on osteogenesis in rat tibia defects https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/369 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Deformities of the jaw and face are often caused by infection, inflammation, and cystic and neoplastic pathological conditions. Defects with various aetiologies should be repaired promptly using the most appropriate approach to reconstruct the anatomical form. To treat defects, bone grafts with various combinations have been used. In particular, combinations including cellular products to enhance osteogenic properties have been implemented. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different materials and cells on bone defects by using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are thought to have a positive effect on healing, demineralized bone graft (DMB) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We used 55 female rats weighing between 200-250 g, four of which were used to obtain platelet-rich plasma. The remaining animals were divided into five groups. Group I (n = 6) was the operative control group, Group II (n = 24) was given DMB, Group III (n = 24) was given DMB+PRP, Group IV (n = 24) was given MSC+DBG and Group V (n = 24) was given DMB+PRP+MSC applied to rat tibial defects (10 mm x 3 mm x 2 mm).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Statistically significant differences were observed in bone osteoblastic activity in tibia defects among the groups (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Bone regeneration was significantly improved in groups where MSCs were used in combination with DMB and PRP.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Erdoğmuş Z, Gülsün B. The effect of mesenchymal stem cells, demıneralızed bone graft and platelet-rıch plasma on osteogenesıs ın rat tıbıa defects. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):47-55. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.8">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.8</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Zozan Erdoğmuş, Belgin Gülsün ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/369 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the accuracy of different electronic apex locators used in working length determination via changing of initial cleaning solutions https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/335 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of the Root ZX Mini, Raypex 6, E-Pex Pro, and Propex Pixi electronic apex locators by changing the initial cleaning solutions (NaOCl vs.&nbsp; EDTA).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Eighty mandibular premolar teeth were used. Radiographs were obtained from the mesio-distal and bucco-lingual angles for all teeth, and teeth with suspected external or internal root resorption and/or calcified canals were not included in the study. The true canal lengths of the teeth were determined with a precision of 0.01 mm with a stereomicroscope at x5 magnification by placing a #20 K-type canal file into the root canal. The samples were then embedded in freshly mixed alginate blocks up to the cemento-enamel junction. The coronal 1/3 was pre-enlarged with a Protaper SX instrument. Electronic apex finders (Root ZX Mini, Raypex 6, E-Pex Pro, Propex Pixi) specified on each tooth were used, and measurements were made by changing the initial solutions (NaOCl vs. EDTA). Distilled water was used between application of 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA to prevent chemical interactions. Three measurements were taken for each tooth, and the average of these 3 measurements was taken as reference. The data obtained in this study were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were no statistically significant differences between the solutions in terms of the measurement values and actual length values found by each device (p&gt;0.05). Although there were no statistically significant differences, the deviation from the actual measurement was greater when EDTA solution was used than when NaOCl solution was used. In addition, although the difference was not found to be statistically significant, the deviation from the actual measurement was found to be highest when the Root ZX mini device was used with NaOCl and EDTA solution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study showed that the difference in the initial washing solutions did not affect the EAL devices in making measurements close to the true length.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Tellioğlu Avcı GR, Kaya S Comparison of the accuracy of different electronic apex locators used in working length determination via changing of initial cleaning solutions. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):56-62.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.9">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.9</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Güliz Rana Tellioğlu Avcı, Sadullah Kaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/335 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparing the effect of Reciproc R25 rotary file system on the amount of apical extrusion of debris via using it with different reciprocal angles https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/365 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To compare the amount of apically extruded debris using Reciproc (R25) file with different reciprocal angles.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this research, 60 extracted mandibular premolars with a single root, a single canal, and a single apical foramen were used. Specimens, the working length of which was determined by a stainless steel 10-K file, were randomly distributed into three experimental groups (n = 20) as follows: Group&nbsp;1 150°&nbsp;counterclockwise (CCW)-30°&nbsp;clockwise (CW); Group&nbsp;2 180°&nbsp;CCW-60°&nbsp;CW; and Group&nbsp;3 210°&nbsp;CCW-90°&nbsp;CW. For the irrigation, 10&nbsp;mL of distilled water was administered via syringe pump. The extruded debris was collected into Eppendorf tubes tared in advance. The distribution of data was analyzed using a Shapiro-Wilk test. A Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for statistical analysis. The null hypothesis is no significant difference between the groups in terms of the amount of apical extrusion of debris.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regard to amount of apical extrusion of debris (p&gt;0.05). Nevertheless, the highest average amount of extrusion of debris was detected in group&nbsp;1, and the lowest in group&nbsp;3.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the results of this study, different reciprocal angles during chemomechanical preparation has no significant effect on the amount of apical extrusion of debris.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Çelik N, Kaya S, Adıgüzel Ö. Comparing the effect of Reciproc R25 rotary file system on the amount of apical extrusion of debris via using it with different reciprocal angles. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):63-6. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.10">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.10</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Nezif Çelik, Sadullah Kaya, Özkan Adıgüzel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/365 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of cyclic fatigue of a reciprocating file system at different angles of rotation https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/329 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this in vitro study is to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary files while operating root canals using in three different reciprocal angles.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Forty-five pieces of Reciproc R25 canal files were tested using artificial canals with a 60° angle&nbsp;of&nbsp;curvature, 5 mm curvature radius, and 1.5 mm diameter carved into a stainless steel block. The Ni-Ti files were checked with a stereomicroscope and then randomly separated into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of reciprocal angles CCW 150°–CW 30°, Group 2 consisted of CCW 180°–CW 60°, and Group 3 consisted of CCW 210°–CW 90°. The duration of the cyclic fatigue being measured, elapsed time until a file fractured was determined with a chronometer. The lengths of the fractured pieces were measured with a digital caliper. After the cyclic fatigue test, two samples from each group were examined with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine the signs of cyclic fatigue.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the normally distributed groups (p&lt;0,05). Since there was a significant statistical difference of file’s cyclic fatigue resistance (p=0,001) between the groups, Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) post-hoc pairwise comparison test were used for determine to between which groups. While there were statistically significant differences between Group&nbsp;1 and Group&nbsp;2 (p=0,001), and between Group&nbsp;1 and Group&nbsp;3 (p=0,001), there was no significant difference between Group&nbsp;2 and Group&nbsp;3 (p=0,376). Group&nbsp;1 displayed the highest resistance to cyclic fatigue. There were no statistically significant differences between the lengths of the fractured files within the three groups according to the one-way analysis of variance (p=0,847).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In our study, it was observed that the reciprocal angles of CCW&nbsp;150°–CW&nbsp;30°, which were also suggested by the file manufacturer firms, had the highest fracture resistance against cyclic fatigue.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Akay A, Adıgüzel Ö, Erkan Akay S, Kaya S. Comparison of cyclic fatigue of a reciprocating file system at different angles of rotation. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):67-72.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.11">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.11</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmet Akay, Özkan Adıgüzel, Seda Erkan Akay, Sadullah Kaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/329 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the anxiety levels of orthodontic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/377 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to determine the anxiety levels of orthodontic patients related to the coronavirus pandemic and to evaluate the effects of quarantine on orthodontic appointments and orthodontic treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted as an online survey with the participation of patients who were actively receiving orthodontic treatment. A total of 281 orthodontic patients (191 [67.97%] females and 90 [32.03%] males) participated in the survey. The questionnaire consisted of five sections that included questions about demographics, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the patients’ orthodontic status. Anxiety levels were measured using Turkish versions of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale. Descriptive statistics, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk normality tests, the Pearson correlation test, and the Mann Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Regarding patients’ perceptions of the pandemic, 251 patients (89.32%) reported that they were sufficiently informed about COVID-19. The main concern about the effects of quarantine on orthodontic treatment was the delay of orthodontic treatment at a rate of 58.36% (164/281). This study found that 36% (103/281) of the participants exhibited anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of dental anxiety specifically was 33% (95/281). Our study results reveal a significant relationship between dental anxiety and general anxiety, which indicates that dentally anxious people tend to also be generally anxious. Females had significantly higher anxiety levels than males (p &lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The coronavirus pandemic and quarantine seem to impact orthodontic patients’ anxiety. Delay of treatment was the primary concern of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Female patients were more anxious than males.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Yıldırım E, Adıgüzel A, Karaçay Ş. Assessment of the anxiety levels of orthodontic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):73-9. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.12">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.12</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ersin Yıldırım, Artemisa Adıgüzel, Şeniz Karaçay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/377 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of optical brightening toothpaste on the color stability of esthetic restorative materials https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/339 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of whitening toothpaste applications on the color stability of different tooth-colored restorative materials (Fuji IX, GC Fuji II LC, Equia Forte, and Kerr Point 4)&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Standardized fourty disc-shaped specimens were prepared from esthetic restorative materials and polished. The baseline color values of each specimen were then measured using a spectrophotometer, according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*, a*, and b* (CIELAB) color scale. Ten specimens from each group were then immersed in two different beverages (cherry juice and coke) for seven days. After immersion, the color value of each specimen was re-measured. Each sample was brushed with whitening toothpaste for 30 seconds using an electric toothbrush. The samples were kept in distilled water at room temperature and brushing continued twice a day for seven days. The color change value, Delta E (ΔE), was calculated. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and&nbsp;post hoc&nbsp;Tukey's test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When the results were evaluated, after the colored samples had been brushed with whitening toothpaste, a difference was found between the Delta E values according to the materials used (p&lt;0.001), but no difference was found in relation to the beverages (p&gt;0.001). When the values of the color changes were evaluated after the first brushing with whitening toothpaste and before the specimens were colored with drinks, a difference was observed in the Fuji II cola, Fuji II cherry, and Equia Forte cola groups (p&lt;0.05). When the values of the color changes were evaluated for specimens in which brushing had been done twice a day for seven days with whitening toothpaste and before they were colored with drinks, a significant difference was observed in the Fuji II cherry and Equia Forte cola groups (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Using Signal White Now whitening toothpaste for 2 min 2 times a day for seven days caused significant changes in the color of the restorative materials. The color change is dependent upon the type of restorative material that is used.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Kahvecioğlu F, Çoban E, Ülker HE. The effect of optical brightening toothpaste on the color stability of esthetic restorative materials. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):80-4. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.13">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.13</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Firdevs Kahvecioğlu, Elçim Çoban, Hayriye Esra Ülker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/339 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An evaluation of the relationship between dental anxiety and oral health in children based on maternal dental anxiety https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/368 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to understand the causes of dental anxiety that prevent optimal treatment in pediatric dental clinics and to examine the relationship between the child's dental anxiety level and the dental anxiety level of his or her parents. It also aimed to understand how the oral health of children whose parents have dental anxiety is affected by their parents’ feelings.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study was conducted by evaluating the answers given to the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) questionnaire, which was applied to 248 children without mental or developmental retardation who consulted the Dicle University Faculty of Dentistry between January and October 2020. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) questionnaire was applied to their parents. In addition, dmft+DMFT scores were determined by performing oral examinations on the children.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> While a statistically significant relationship was found between the dental anxiety levels of the 248 children included in our study and the dental anxiety levels of their mothers, no significant relationship was found between the dental anxiety levels of their fathers and those of the children. Those children whose mothers had high dental anxiety scores had higher dmft+DMFT scores, compared to others involved in the survey. The dmft+DMFT scores of the children with high dental anxiety were found to be higher than those of other children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Parents, especially mothers, play an important role in the development of children’s dental anxiety. The fact that parents with dental anxiety often avoid taking their children to the dentist prevents necessary treatments from being performed on time and causes the children’s oral health to deteriorate over time. Informing parents about reducing dental anxiety and dentists’ efforts to teach coping strategies can be helpful for minimizing the impact of parents' dental concerns on their children. By increasing mothers’ awareness of oral and dental health, it can be ensured that both they and their children will benefit more from dentistry services.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Çelenk S, Kol Ş. An evaluation of the relationship between dental anxiety and oral health in children based on maternal dental anxiety. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):86-90. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.14">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.14</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Şebnem Kol, Sema Çelenk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/368 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Readability and content assessment of patient information texts on oral cancers found on Turkish websites https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/341 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Oral cancer is one of the health problems that results in high mortality in the community. It is known that, when diagnosed in the later stages (3 or 4), the disease is difficult to treat. Patient education on heredity and early diagnoses are critical for the successful treatment of oral cancer. This study aimed to evaluate Turkish texts about oral cancers found online in terms of their readability and content.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The first 100 websites returned from a Google search using the keywords "Ağız kanseri" (“oral cancer,” in Turkish) were examined. The patient information texts obtained were evaluated according to the Ateşman Readability Index. Their contents were also evaluated in terms of whether or not they provided sufficient information about the disease.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was understood that the texts examined in the study were of medium difficulty according to the Ateşman Readability Index (mean 61.73± 11.81). The content of the information on the websites examined in the study was deemed sufficient and useful. Most of the websites examined were those of private clinics and hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of the study indicated that the patient information texts found on Turkish websites were of medium reading difficulty. Although they are sufficient in terms of content, if they are not understood by the patients, their intended effects on readers will not be seen.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Kaya DI. Readability and content assessment of patient information texts on oral cancers found on Turkish websites. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):91-5.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.15">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.15</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Doğan Ilgaz Kaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/341 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effects of type-I collagen membrane, hydroxyapatite, and platelet-rich plasma on bone regeneration: An experimental study https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/342 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Various methods have been developed to support bone reconstruction, including the use of autogenous, allogenic, and synthetic bone graft substitutes, membranes, and concentrated supplements. This study aims to compare the effects of collagen membrane, hydroxyapatite, and platelet-rich plasma on the bone regeneration process in a rat model.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The experiment was conducted with 60 female Wistar albino rats. Subjects were divided randomly into three groups (n: 20). In the first group, the right femurs' defects were left empty (group I), and type-I collagen membrane was applied to the left femurs (group II). Type-I collagen membrane + hydroxyapatite (group III) was applied to the second group, and type-I collagen membrane + hydroxyapatite + platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (group IV) was applied to the third group. Thus, a total of 80 femurs were included in the study, and defects were evaluated histologically on the 10<sup>th</sup>, 21<sup>st</sup>, 45<sup>th</sup>, and 90<sup>th</sup> days (n: 5).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Groups II and III had better osteogenesis scores than group I, whereas group IV had better results than all other groups.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the PRP group, the osteogenesis scores were significantly better than the other groups. However, the healing was almost excellent in all three study groups (groups II, III, and IV) at the end of the experiment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Çetin Genç Ç, Gülsün B. The effects of type-I collagen membrane, hydroxyapatite, and platelet-rich plasma on bone regeneration: An experimental study. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):96-102.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.16">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.16</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Çiğdem Çetin Genç, Belgin Gülsün ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/342 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of surface treatment methods on the phase changes in zirconia https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/378 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In this study, zirconia was subjected to various surface treatments, namely, Al₂O₃ sandblasting, CoJet, and coating; the effects of these methods were investigated with the use of SEM, EDX, and XRD. Coating of zirconia surface with silica using the ultrasonic spray method is performed for the first time in this study. The present results are particularly important for the conduct of future studies.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Eighty-four zirconia samples were used for the XRD (n=28), SEM (n=28), and EDX (n=28) analyzes. Commercial semi-sintered discs (Kuraray-Noritake Katana HT10 14 mm, Japan) were used in this study. The size of the zirconia samples (i.e., 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height) was designed in a computer environment, factoring in the degree of shrinkage following sintering. The dimensions of the sintered samples were determined with a digital caliper. Four surface treatments were employed in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The surfaces of the zirconium samples subjected to different surface treatments were investigated. The SEM and EDX images of the treated zirconia were taken at 80×, 250×, 1000×, 10,000×, and 20,000× magnifications and then compared with those of the untreated sintered samples. The XRD analysis results showed that the intensity of the peaks of the zirconium oxide samples at the 2θ range of 20°–40° varied from the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase along the surface.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The sandblasting and CoJet surface treatments caused mechanical changes on the surface of the zirconia samples, and Al₂O₃ particles were detected on the surface, as shown by the SEM and EDX analysis results. The XRD analysis results for the blasting group differed the most from the results for the control group; by contrast, the results for the ultrasonic spray group were nearly the same to those for the control group.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Seyfioğlu Polat Z, Özdemir G. Effects of surface treatment methods on the phase changes in zirconia. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):103-13.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.17">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.17</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gökhan Özdemir, Zelal Seyfioğlu Polat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/378 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of two different reciprocal files according to different access angles into the root canal https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/366 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Root canal preparation is one of the most important steps of root canal treatment. Preparation procedure includes disinfection and shaping protocols. Ni-Ti rotary file systems are usually used for shaping. The biggest disadvantage of the usage of Ni-Ti rotary file systems is that the file gets broken during the treatment. There are many reasons for the breakage of files. One of the reasons may be the increase in the access angle. The purpose of this study is to compare the cyclic fatigue of reciprocating Reciproc and WaveOne Gold rotary systems according to different angles of accessing the root canal of Ni-Ti files.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In our study, 90 root canal files were used, 45 of which is Reciproc R25 (VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) and the other 45 of which is WaveOne Gold Primary 25/07 (Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Specially designed and manufactured stainless steel artificial roots whose curvature angle is 60° and curvature radius is 5 mm, which replicates the clinical conditions, were arranged. By enabling the files access the roots at 0°- 15°- 30° degrees, the lap numbers that they do till they break due to cyclic fatigue were examined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When looking at the lap numbers that the Reciproc and WaveOne Gold root canal files do till they break, at accessing the roots at the same angles WaveOne Gold root canal file makes more lap numbers at all angles when compared with the Reciproc root canal file. Significant results were found when the groups were compared within one another and between groups and among all numeric data in the statistical analysis performed. It was also found that WaveOne Gold root canal file had more cyclic fatigue resistance. When the groups were compared within one another, it was found that the increase in the root access angle decreases the cyclic fatigue resistance of the files (p&lt;0.05). No significant difference was found in the statistical analysis for comparison of the length of the broken file pieces (p=0.01). It was analyzed that when the broken files were examined via scanning electron microscope, file breakages occurred due to cyclic fatigue.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Not only do the design features and production technology affect the breakage resistance due to cyclic fatigue of the root canal, the access angle to the roots affects the cyclic fatigue of the root canal files, as well.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Adıgüzel Ö, Dundar M, Kaya S. The comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of two different reciprocal files according to different entry angles into the root canal. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):114-21. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.18">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.18</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Mehmet Dundar, Özkan Adıgüzel, Sadullah Kaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/366 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective evaluation of fiber-reinforced periodontal splints and resin bridges in the anterior region https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/379 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of fiber-reinforced periodontal splints (FRSs) and adhesive bridges (FRBs) in treating anterior single-tooth defects.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sixty-five patients who received FRSs and FRBs from 2001 to 2012 were recalled and evaluated clinically. The FRS and FRB restorations of the patients were clinically evaluated in terms of anatomical form, marginal adaptation, marginal coloration, secondary caries, and retention, according to the modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. The current restoration statuses of the patients from 5 to 10 years post-treatment were photographed and recorded. Patient satisfaction level was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and periodontal pocket depth was measured. Clinical follow-up data were obtained and analyzed with the Chi-squared test (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When each of the modified USPHS criteria was compared with the baseline values, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. There were statistically significant differences when the categories were evaluated according to initial values (p&lt;0.05). When the clinical evaluation criteria were compared with each other, no statistically significant differences were found (p&gt;0.05). While the most successful results were obtained in the FRB group, most of the restoration losses and repairs occurred in the FRS group. According to the data obtained, 38% of restorations were lost and all restorations had been intact for at least 5 years. All lost restorations were in FGS restorations. The recall rate was 49% (n=32). Twenty (62.5%) of 32 patients rated their satisfaction with the restorations as being between 90 and 100, 8 (25%) as being between 80 and 90, and 4 (12.5%) as being between 70 and 80 on the VAS scale. The pocket depths of the patients at 5- and 10-years post-restoration were 2.3–3.8 mm and 2.4–5.2 mm, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Fiber-reinforced restorations performed due to the loss of anterior single teeth and periodontal tissue can serve patients clinically for at least 5 years. FGK and FGS restorations can be considered alternative treatments that can further delay the more expensive implant and prosthetic treatment options for years.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Ünlü N, Altınbilek N, Velioğlu MS. Retrospective evaluation of fiber-reinforced periodontal splints and resin bridges in the anterior region. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):122-7. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.19">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.19</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Nimet Ünlü, Nurdan Altınbilek, Mehmet Semih Velioğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/379 Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of ytterbium-doped fiber laser on titanium fused to ceramic https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/371 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of our study is to compare the application of fiber lasers with aluminum oxide sandblasting and CoJet, which is one of the other surface roughening methods used for the first time in this study. Investigating the effect of titanium–porcelain bond strength is another aim of this study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In total, 96 samples of titanium discs (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height) were prepared in a CAD/CAM device. Samples were divided into six groups (n: 10), including the control group, according to the applied surface treatments: one-way (horizontal) scanning with a Yb fiber laser, two-way (horizontal-vertical) scanning with a Yb fiber laser, three-way (horizontal–vertical–hypotenuse) scanning with a Yb fiber laser, CoJet, sandblasting, and the control group. After using the different surface treatments on the titanium discs, scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, a wettability test, and a profilometer test were applied to the samples in each group. After the surface treatments were applied to the titanium discs, including those in the control group, low heat porcelain (VITA Titanium Porcelain), which was 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. Afterwards, porcelain samples prepared with titanium inlays were placed in acrylic blocks and kept in 37°C (±1°C) distilled water for 24 hours. Shear tests were applied to the samples embedded in prepared acrylic blocks, and the results were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the statistical evaluation of the obtained data, one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) was used to compare the statistical differences of the mean values of the bond strength between titanium and porcelain. In our study, Tukey’s HSD and Dunnett’s multiple comparison statistical tests were used to determine the differences among the groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the results of our study, the highest average bond strength values were obtained from sandblasting and three-way fiber laser roughness. As a result, no statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Although Yb fiber laser application was not found to have a statistically significant effect on titanium porcelain bond strength, this method could be useful for titanium porcelain bonding.</p> <p>ain bonding.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Tepe İH, Nigiz R, Seyfioğlu Polat Z, Mutluay Ünal S. The effect of ytterbium-doped fiber laser on titanium fused to ceramic. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):128-36. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.20">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.20</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> İbrahim Halil Tepe, Remzi Nigiz, Zelal Seyfioğlu Polat, Server Mutluay Ünal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/371 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mechanical properties of resin composites containing bioactive glass and experimental nano zinc-silica complex https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/346 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Secondary caries is an important problem in dental composite restoration, and nanoparticles are commonly added to the structures of resin composites to improve their antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of composite materials containing bioactive glass (BAG) and an experimental nano zinc-silica (NZS) complex.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> An experimental resin composite containing 70 wt% filler was produced and used as a control sample. This experimental resin composite was then modified by adding different amounts of BAG (10%), NZS (10%), and both BAG and NZS (10% + 10%). NZS was synthesized in situ by milling zinc and silica to nanoscale level. Compressive strength and flexural strength were investigated using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Tukey post-hoc test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were no statistically significant differences in compressive strength caused by the filler amount, but statistically significant changes were found in flexural strength. Although the addition of antimicrobial agents to resin composites reduces their physical properties, this is not a clinically unacceptable limit.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> NZS exhibits better mechanical properties than does BAG, but both materials can be used safely in restorative materials.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Tunçdemir MT, Demirel MG. Mechanical properties of resin composites containing bioactive glass and experimental nano zinc-silica complex. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):137-42.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.21">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.21</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mehmet Gökberkkaan Demirel, Makbule Tuğba Tunçdemir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/346 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Are student knowledge levels and attitudes about avulsion dental trauma adequate in the faculty of medicine? https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/347 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to measure the knowledge levels and attitudes of medical students in Kahramanmaraş city on traumatic dental injuries, particularly dental avulsion.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 224 students studying at the medical school in Kahramanmaraş province were included in this research. The students filled out two-part questionnaire forms containing 17 items in total. We used descriptive frequency analysis, crosstabs, and the chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Only 7.6% of the students had received relevant training on dental injuries; however, 70.6% did not find the training sufficient. In the case report on replanting a primary tooth, 70.1% of the participants agreed that the primary tooth should not be replanted. In the case report on replanting a permanent tooth, 70.5% of them stated that, although they knew the fallen tooth to be a permanent tooth, they would refer the patient to a dentist immediately because they did not have relevant knowledge for the case. Additionally, 7.6% of the participants stated that if a permanent tooth was avulsed, they would keep the tooth in milk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that students majoring in medicine had insufficient knowledge levels and attitudes regarding dental injuries leading to avulsion, and we believe this subject needs to be covered by the relevant curriculum.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> İpek S, Soğukpınar Önsüren A. Are student knowledge levels and attitudes about avulsion dental trauma adequate in the faculty of medicine? Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):143-51.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.22">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.22</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aslı Soğukpınar Önsüren, Sevcan İpek ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/347 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical and radiological of the effects of two different implant surfaces on marginal tissues https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/348 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In this study, our aim is to compare the effects of dental implants with nano laser excimer technology surface (NLE) and dental implant surfaces (MTX) with micro-roughened surface on marginal tissues with clinical and radiological data.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 117 dental implants were followed clinically and radiologically. Clinically; Plaque index (silness-leöe), bleeding index in boring, pocket depth were evaluated and recorded 1 week after the insertion of the healing cap, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after the end of the prosthesis. In the same periods, periapical x-rays were taken with the Rinn Holder method and the amount of marginal bone loss was measured. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22 package program.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no loss in the implants included in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of plaque index, bleeding index values (p&gt;0,05). However, the pocket depth of the dental implant group with nano laser excimer technology surface is significantly lower than the micro-roughened surface group. There are statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of radiological marginal bone loss at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months (p&lt;0,05). Radiological marginal bone loss values ​​of the micro-roughened surface group at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly lower compared to the same periods of the nano laser excimer technology group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It has been determined that the surface properties of dental implants can be effective on marginal tissues. In addition, we believe that routine checks by dentists who perform dental implant applications will increase the success of dental implants.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Bingül MB, Gülsün B. Clinical and radiological of the effects of two different implant surfaces on marginal tissues. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):152-9. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.23">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.23</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Muhammet Bahattin Bingül, Belgin Gülsün ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/348 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Biochemical marker levels in peri-implant crevicular fluid of completely edentulous patients with two implant-supported mandibular overdentures before and 6 months after loading: Prospective clinical trial https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/350 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the levels of biochemical markers detected in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) before and 6 months after loading in completely edentulous patients with two implant-supported mandibular overdentures and to correlate them with clinical parameters.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Two implants were applied to the mandibular canine region of the 20 completely edentulous and systemically healthy patients (11 females, 9 males) with conventional 2-stage surgery. PICF samples of the participants were collected before and 6 months after prosthetic loading, and clinical parameters—including modified plaque index (MPI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BoP), probing pocket depth (PPD), and keratinized gingival width (KGW)—were recorded. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were examined in PICF samples via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The SPSS package program was used to statistically analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average age of the participants was 57.05 ± 9.82 years. Although a decrease was observed in all clinical parameters after prosthetic loading compared to baseline levels, this decrease was not considered statistically significant (p&gt;0.05). PICF volume showed a statistically significant decrease from baseline to 6 months (p&lt;0.05). The decreases observed at 6th month values in all of the biochemical markers examined were not found to be statistically significant, similar to the clinical parameters (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Within the limits of this study, the PICF marker levels and clinical parameters determined following osseointegration and 6 months after prosthetic loading are similar. This suggests that the studied sample has prosthetic restorations that contribute positively to the tissue maturation process and apply ideal forces to the tissue. More comprehensive studies are recommended to understand the tissue healing process after implant treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Ayhan Alkan E, Yaylı Alpaslan NZ. Biochemical marker levels in peri-implant crevicular fluid of completely edentulous patients with two implant-supported mandibular overdentures before and 6 months after loading: Prospective clinical trial. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):160-6.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.24">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.24</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nazlı Zeynep Alpaslan Yaylı, Eylem Ayhan Alkan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/350 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the surface properties of modified Ni-Ti arch wires https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/351 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Materials used in orthodontic treatment can cause corrosion and metal ion release to the mouth. This study was aimed to examine the changes in the friction coefficients and corrosion resistance of the modified Ni-Ti arch wires.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Our sample consisted of 16 Ni-Ti arch wires (0.016 × 0.022 inches). Coating bathes involving Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Mo, and Ni-Ti-Cr were prepared for arch wires coating. New surfaces were analyzed by SEM, and the crystallographic structure was determined by X-rays. The friction coefficient of the coated wires was determined by nanoindentation. Artificial saliva was prepared as a corrosive condition. Impedance measurements were performed with an electrochemical analyzer. The AC impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed after four hours, seven, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All groups were more resistant than the control group (-447 mV) [group 1 (-388 mV), group 2 (-328 mV), group 3 (-327 mV), group 4 (-427 mV), group 5 (-395 mV), group 6 (-366 mV), and group 7 (-380 mV)]. Friction coefficients of group 5 (0.252) and group 6 (0.265) were observed to be lower than those of the control group (0.288).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the results of our study, it was shown that the surface properties of Ni-Ti wires could be electrochemically improved. The coated wires (group 5 and group 6) had a remarkable corrosion resistance and reduced friction. The protocols that we used should help provide better-quality surfaces.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Özyılmaz AT, Bilgiç Zortuk F, Yılmaz H. Evaluation of the surface properties of modified ni-ti arch wires. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):167-176.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.25">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.25</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hakkı Yılmaz, Fundagül Bilgiç Zortuk, Ali Tuncay Özyılmaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/351 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of cephalometric changes resulting from different upper incisor intrusion methods https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/352 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to provide intrusion of upper incisors with applying Connecticut Intrusion Arch (CIA) and Miniscrew and to evaluate the dental and skeletal cephalometric effects of these intrusion methods on individuals with deep bite caused by supraocclusion of upper incisors.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study includes 40 adults, without making sexual distinction, who have at least 4 mm deep bite caused by supraocclusion of upper incisors. Two study groups each consisting 20 individuals formed as CIA and Miniscrew groups. Skeletal, dental, soft tissue measurements were done on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measurements were done on standard periapical radiographs that were taken from upper four incisor teeth. Statistically, Paired Student’s t-test was used in intragroup comparements and independent Student’s t-test was used in the investigation of differences between groups. Nevertheless, the concern of variables that seen as risk factors with the amount of resorption was investigated with Pearson correlation analysis.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Successful intrusion of four upper incisor teeth with CIA and Mini screw methods and in-significant difference was determined between two methods. Protrusion of upper and lower incisor teeth decrease in interincisal angle and overbite and increase in overjet was stated by intrusion at both of the methods. The decline of the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first molar was observed in the CIA method. In soft tissue evaluation, decrease of upper lip length, upper lip thickness and distance of upper and lower lip to the Rickett’s plane was observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The methods used for intrusion showed to cause similar ratio of root resorption.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Süer Tümen D, Hamamcı O. Comparison of cephalometric changes resulting from different upper incisor intrusion methods. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):177-94. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.26">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.26</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Demet Süer Tümen, Orhan Hamamcı ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/352 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the stress distribution in the cortical bone caused by variations in implant applications in patients with bruxism: A three-dimensional finite element analysis https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/353 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the stress distribution in the cortical bone under parafunctional forces with different occlusal thicknesses, monolithic zirconia with different implant diameters, and number variations in implant-supported fixed prosthetic restorations applied in patients with bruxism.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The tomographic sections of the previously registered mandible were used in order to model the mandible. Modeled bone height is 30 mm, cortical bone thickness is 1.5 mm, and trabecular bone thickness is modeled as 13 mm. By placing two implants in the created bone model, a three-member main model (Group 1), the number of implants was increased, three implants supported the Group 2 models, the diameter of the implants was increased, and the Group 3 models were created. The created Group 1, 2, 3 models, the occlusal thickness was divided into subgroups with 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm, respectively (Groups A, B, and C). The groups were applied in two directions: vertical and 30<sup>o</sup> oblique. Stress values under forces were analyzed by finite element stress analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Under vertical loading, the maximum principal stress value in the cortical bone was found to be lowest in Group 2C, and the highest maximum principal stress value was found in Group 1A. The minimum principal stress value in the cortical bone was found to be the lowest in Group 3C, and the highest minimum principal stress value was found in Group 1A. Under oblique loading, the maximum principal stress value in the cortical bone was found to be the lowest in Group 3C and the highest maximum principal stress value was found in Group 1A. The minimum principal stress value in the cortical bone was found to be lowest in Group 3C, and the highest minimum principal stress value was found in Group1A.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Stresses caused by oblique forces are more than vertical forces. Increasing the occlusal thickness of the implant fixed prosthesis material, implant diameter, and number reduce the minimum and maximum principal stress values in the cortical</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Kantaci Y, Ülkü SZ. Evaluation of the stress distribution in the cortical bone caused by variations in implant applications in patients with bruxism:&nbsp;A three-dimensional finite element analysis. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):194-200. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.27">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.27</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Yakup Kantaci, Sabiha Zelal Ülkü ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/353 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of different final irrigation solutions on apical impermeability https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/354 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to compare ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), phytic acid, and citric acid as chelation agents in final irrigation procedures on teeth with apical impermeability.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We used 66 mandibular premolar teeth with a single root and single canal extracted for periodontal or orthodontic reasons. All teeth crowns were removed to achieve a 14-mm root length. Mechanical preparation of the root canal was completed with a Reciproc R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) file system. Teeth were randomly separated into three groups: Group 1: 5 ml 17% EDTA, Group 2: 5 ml 1% phytic acid, and Group 3: 5 ml 20% citric acid. We used 6 ml 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in the mechanical preparation of all groups. Three teeth were selected for both the positive and negative control groups. All teeth in the experimental groups were filled by the lateral condensation method using AH Plus canal sealer and gutta-percha. For hardening of the canal sealer, samples were kept at 37 oC and at 100% humidity in a drying oven for 7 days. Later, following removal from the drying oven, two layers of nail polish were used to cover all but the apical 2 mm of each tooth. The teeth were then kept in 2% methylene blue solution at 37 oC for 7 days. The root was divided by cutting in the buccolingual direction and gutta-percha was removed. The dye leakage was measured linearly in millimeters (mm) under a stereomicroscope.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> As a result of the apical leakage assessment, the lowest apical leakage is observed in the phytic acid group. There was a statistically significant difference between the phytic acid group and citric acid group. There was no statistically significant difference between other groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> While phytic acid showed similar results with EDTA on apical impermeability, it was more effective than citric acid.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Akın Tartuk G, Kaya S, Adıgüzel Ö. The effect of different final irrigation solutions on apical impermeability. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):201-5. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.28">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.28</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Gizem Akın Tartuk, Sadullah Kaya, Özkan Adıgüzel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/354 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of removable dental prostheses on mandibular bone density in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/355 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the effects of removable dental prostheses on mandibular bone density in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The prospective study included 30 female patients aged 45–70 years who had been previously diagnosed with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The patients had no diseases affecting bone metabolism. The patients were divided into two groups: (i) patients who were using removable dental prostheses (n=15) and (ii) patients who were not using removable dental prostheses (n=15) (the control group). A whole-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed to calculate the mandibular bone densities of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The use of removable mandibular prostheses did not cause a significant change in mandibular bone density.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fact that removable mandibular prostheses did not cause a significant change in mandibular bone density could be because the patients started using the removable prostheses long after they lost their teeth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Akın Tartuk G, Kaya S. The effect of different final irrigation solutions on apical impermeability. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):201-5. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.28">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.28</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Sinan Ateş, Belgin Gülsün ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/355 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Examination of the stresses of the implants applied to the atrophic edentulous maxilla on the maxillary bone https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/356 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In advanced atrophy of the posterior maxilla, applied zygoma implants increase the success of the surgical procedure by reducing morbidity and procedure time. In our study, using tomographic records, a model with posterior atrophy was obtained in a computer environment, and zygomatic and dental implants in different numbers and localizations were applied to this model. The aim of our study was to choose the most accurate surgical planning according to the stresses arising from the applied forces.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In our study, one zygoma implant on the right and left in Group 1, two zygoma implants in Group 2, one zygoma implant in Group 3 and one dental implant in the first premolar tooth area, one zygoma implant in Group 4 and one dental implant in the lateral tooth area and one zygoma implant in Group 5 and one dental implant in the lateral and a first premolar tooth area were applied. 150 N were applied vertically to the prosthetic superstructure from the lateral tooth, 1st premolar tooth, 1st molar tooth and 2nd molar tooth. As a result of the applied forces, the maximum stress values ​​in the maxilla molar region were examined by finite element stress analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study, it was observed that Group 1 had the highest stress value, followed by Group 3. Stress values in Groups 2, 4 and 5 were low and they were measured close to each other.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As a result of our study, it was seen that zygomatic and dental implants applied in addition to the zygomatic implant reduce stress and the localization of dental implants affect the stress values.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Gülsün B, Çetindağ A. Examination of the stresses of the implants applied to the atrophic edentulous maxilla on the maxillary bone. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):210-5. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.30">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.30</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Aykut Çetindağ, Belgin Gülsün ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/356 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An evaluation of the relationship between periocular anthropometric measurements and mandibular incisor crowding https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/343 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine whether a relationship exists between the periocular anthropometric meas-urements (POAM), intercanine width, and Little’s irregularity index (measures the crowding of mandibular incisors) in the Turkish population.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Ninety-four children (49 with mandibular crowding and 45 controls) aged between 12-18 years were included in this study. Inter-outer canthal distance (IOCD), in-ter-inner canthal distance (IICD), interpupillary distance (IPD), inter-canine width (ICW), and Littles’irregularity index (LII) of subjects were measured from two standardized digital pho-tographs using a public domain Java processing program (ImageJ software). Spearman correla-tion coefficient and multiple linear regression tests were used to investigate the relationship between POAM, and ICW, and LII.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the mandibular crowding group, the means of IICD, OICD, IPD, and ICW were 30.6 ± 1.7 mm, 82.4 ± 2.0 mm, 59.2 ± 1.6 mm, 23.3 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. In controls, the mean of the measurements was found to be 32.1 ± 1.5 mm, 84.4 ± 2.4 mm, 60.1 ± 1.9 mm, 24.6 ± 1.4 mm, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between groups among all variables (p &lt;0.001). There was a negative correlation between POAM and ICW with LDI. Especially, high correlation was found in ICW and IICD variables (r = -. 732, p &lt;.001 and r = -705, p &lt;.001, respectively). As a result of multivariate regression analysis, IICD and ICW were found to be affected the crowding negatively and significantly (p = .003 and p = .026, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the results obtained from our study, it was concluded that IICD which remains stable after the age of 10 years and ICW can be used to predict irregularities in mandibular incisors in children in the Turkish population.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Kızıltan Eliaçık BB. An evaluation of the relationship between periocular anthropometric measurements and mandibular incisor crowding. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):216-221. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.31">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.31</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Başak Kızıltan Eliaçık ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/343 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Survival and clinical evaluation of various space maintainers used for early primary tooth loss https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/340 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This retrospective study investigated the survival rate and clinical performance of space maintainers fitted in 50 patients aged from 6-11years in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Selcuk University between 2016 and 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sixty-one subjects were included in the study. The clinical examination included performing the gingival index (GI) and the plaque index. The values of the indexes were determined and compared, and the failures of retainers were recorded and analyzed in terms of survival.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Follow-up loss occurred in 18% of 61 space maintainers. A total of 10% of the evaluated 50 space maintainers had failed due to breakage. By using the Kaplan–Meier method, the estimated mean survival time for space maintainers was 13 months. Lingual arches had the lowest mean survival time of 12 months. Band and loops and removable partial dentures had a similar probability of survival. A significant decrease was observed in the time-dependent evaluation of the means of plaque and gingival indexes; however, no significant difference was found between space maintainer types.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The successful use of space maintainers for the premature loss of primary tooth space is achieved by regular follow-ups with the patient’s parents, patient cooperation, and proper space maintainers and choice of material.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Özüdoğru S, Tosun G. Survival and clinical evaluation of various space maintainers used for early primary tooth loss. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):222-7.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.32">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.32</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Semanur Özüdoğru, Gül Tosun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/340 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of liquid sorption and color stability of dental composites after exposure to common lactation teas https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/360 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To assess the effects of common lactation teas on liquid sorption and color stability of three different dental composites.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 60 samples (n = 5) were examined from three composite materials: Omnichroma (Tokuyama Dental Co., Tokyo, Japan), Estelite Posterior, (Tokuyama Dental Co., Tokyo, Japan), and Mosaic Universal (Ultradent production Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA). Samples measuring 2x6 mm were taken and immersed in three different teas—Humana (Humana, Bremen, Germany), Hipp, (Hipp, Pfaffenhofen, Germany), and Lactamil (Nutricia, Friedrichsdorf, Germany) —as well as artificial saliva. The measurements were recorded at baseline and on the 7th day. A sensitive analytical balance was used to measure liquid sorption, and a VITA Easy Shade device was used for color measurements. Absorption and Delta E values ​​were calculated. The data were analyzed using MANOVA at a significance level of (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Composite materials, solutions, and their interactions had a statistically significant effect on the sorption and Delta E values (p&lt;0.001). The relative liquid absorption values among the composites were recorded as follows: Tokuyama&gt;Mosaic&gt;Omnichroma. Humana had the highest and Hipp had the lowest mean value among the solutions (p&lt;0.001). For Delta E, Mosaic had the highest mean value among the composites, and Lactamil had the highest mean value among the solutions (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lactation teas cause discoloration in dental composites. In vitro and in vivo studies on color changes in dental composites are needed due to the sorption of these fluids.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Özüdoğru S, Tosun G. Survival and clinical evaluation of various space maintainers used for early primary tooth loss. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):222-7.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.32">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.32</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Zuhal Yıldırım Bilmez, Oya Şeker, Hazal Deniz Köse, Başak Gözüyeşil Aslan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/360 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative evaluation of the color stability of universal composites https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/361 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to compare the color stability of different universal composites and to evaluate the effects of keeping them in water for 1 week before coloring.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Filtek Ultimate (FU), Estelite Ʃ Quick (EQ), and Ceram X One (CX) composites were used. The specimens were kept in the dark, dry environment for 24 hours, then polished, and each composite group was divided into 3 groups: the control, the group that was kept in water for 1 week before coloring and coloring (n=7). The samples in the control group were kept in distilled water for 3 weeks. Samples in the coloring group were colored with coffee for 2 weeks (C), and the samples in the last group were kept in water for 1 week and then stained with coffee for 2 weeks (W+C) (n=7). Color measurements for all samples were taken twice, once before and once after the coloring period. The color changes of the samples were measured using the ∆E* parameter, which was calculated with before and after measurements.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> For all composite resins, the ΔE values of the samples in the W+C and C groups were significantly higher than those in the control group. When the composites were compared with each other, the differences between the ΔE values of the composites in the control, W+C, and C groups were not statistically significant. For FU and ESQ, at the end of the coloration period, there were no statistically significant differences between the W+C and C groups. However, for CX, the color change of the samples in the W+C group was significantly higher than that in&nbsp; the C group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Storage in distilled water for 1 week before staining did not reduce the color change values of the samples. Thus, after composite restorations are performed, there is no need to advise patients to avoid staining foods, especially in the first week after restoration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Abdulateef OF, Çobanoğlu N, Gürses M. Comparative evaluation of the color stability of universal composites. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):234-7.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.34">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.34</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Merve Gürses, Nevin Çobanoğlu, Omar Faez Abdulateef ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/361 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the dental anxiety levels of patients applying to the faculty of dentistry during the COVID-19 pandemic https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/357 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of dental anxiety in patients who applied to the Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Dentistry during the COVID-19 outbreak and to evaluate the relationships of their anxiety levels to age, gender, education level, and the frequency of visits to dentists.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> There were 320 participants, including 163 females (50.9%) and 157 males (49.1%), aged from 18 to 65 years or older, who had applied to the Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Dentistry. The Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) was used to determine the levels of dental anxiety (non-anxiety, little anxiety, anxiety, over anxiety, and excessive anxiety) and the anxiety groups (low or high). Descriptive statistics were presented in percentages. Data were analyzed using t-tests and one-way ANOVA and chi-square tests, at a significance level of p = 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the participants, 38.1% were at the non-anxiety level, 44.1% had very little anxiety, 10.9% had anxiety, 5% had over anxiety, and 1.9% had excessive anxiety. With regard to the anxiety groups, 82.5% were in the low anxiety group, and 17.5% were in the high anxiety group. Age, education level, and frequency of visiting the dentist were not found to have any effects on dental anxiety (p &gt; 0.05). However, the effect of gender with regard to dental anxiety was significant (p &lt; 0.05), as females had higher dental anxiety levels than males.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> While the effect of gender was found to be important in terms of dental anxiety, age, educational status, and the frequency of visiting the dentist did not have significant effects on dental anxiety. Females had higher dental anxiety scores and levels than males.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Tunçdemir AR, Büyükerkmen EB, Savaş A. Evaluation of the dental anxiety levels of patients applying to the faculty of dentistry during the Covıd-19 pandemic. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):238-244.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.35">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.35</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Abdulhaluk Savaş, Emine Begüm Büyükerkmen, Ali Rıza Tunçdemir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/357 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Information on YouTube: Orthodontics and COVID-19 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/362 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to assess YouTube videos about COVID-19 in relation to orthodontics.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A YouTube search using the keyword “coronavirus orthodontics” was conducted on January 11, 2021. The top 50 videos were evaluated. The exclusion criteria were as follows: videos in other languages, duplicates, irrelevant videos, and duration longer than 15 minutes. The remaining 22 videos were scored by one examiner. Each of these videos was classified into one of three categories: useful, misleading, or news update. The modified DISCERN reliability index, number of views, number of comments, duration (in minutes), number of likes and dislikes, interaction index, viewing rate, and source of each video were also recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Useful videos accounted for 77% of those examined, misleading videos accounted for 14%, and news updates accounted for 9%. Most of the videos were uploaded by orthodontists (95%) and most of these were classified as useful (81%). Useful videos had a significantly higher DISCERN score than misleading videos (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most of the orthodontics-related YouTube videos about COVID-19 were useful, and the most popular video was uploaded by an orthodontist.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Olkun HK. Information on YouTube: Orthodontics and COVID-19. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):245-9.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.36">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.36</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hatice Kübra Olkun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/362 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Finite elements analysis of stresses formed in core and spongious bone tissue by restored implanted fixed prostheses with Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and fiber-reinforced composite https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/363 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study uses the finite element analysis method to compare the effects of different abutments and prosthetic materials on stress distribution in the rehabilitation of maxillary anterior tooth deficiencies with fixed implanted prostheses.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In our study, two titanium implant models with a diameter of 4.1 mm and a length of 10 mm were designed for the maxillary central and canine teeth regions. 3D models of the prosthetic restorations were created with PEEK and fiber-reinforced composite and two different abutment materials (titanium and zirconia). After meshing the materials used with cortical and cancellous bone, Poisson ratio and young module values were loaded into the program. Maxillary central and canine to the palatal surface of the tooth, 2 mm below the incisal edge; a 178 N force was applied in both the vertical and 45° oblique directions, and analysis was performed. The distributions of the highest compression and tensile stress values in peri-implant cortical and cancellous bone were examined, and the results were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Material with low elastic modulus caused higher stress accumulation in the cortical and cancellous bone tissue around the implant during oblique force application.</p> <p>In all study groups, the maximum stress values ​​observed in the cancellous and cortical bone during oblique force application were significantly higher than those observed during vertical force application. Thus, different prosthetic materials had different effects on stress distribution in peri-implant cortical and cancellous bone tissue, and the highest stress accumulations were in the peri-implant cortical bone.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Different prosthetic materials had different effects on stress distribution in peri-implant cortical and cancellous bone tissue.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Zengingül Aİ, Göncü Başaran E, Çelik H. Finite elements analysis of stresses formed in core and spongious bone tissue by restored implanted fixed prostheses with Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and fiber-reinforced composite. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):250-8. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.37">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.37</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Hidayet Çelik, Emine Göncü Başaran, Ali İhsan Zengingül ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/363 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of dentists' stress and anxiety levels in the COVID-19 pandemic https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/364 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause stress, anxiety, and fear, especially in healthcare workers as it has a high risk of transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic among dentists working in our country.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study included 164 dentists. Sociodemographic data and the stress and anxiety levels of the individuals who participated in the study were recorded. The COVID-19 Stress Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale-10 were used for evaluation of the stress levels, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 was used to evaluate the anxiety levels. All data were considered statistically significant at p &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among those who participated in the study, 112 were women and 52 were men, and 50% of them were 20 to 30 years of age. Based on the information these dentists provided, 63% did not have any expertise and 66% had worked in the normalization process. Their scores in the COVID-19 Stress Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale 7, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 were 64.4 ± 25.2, 5.46 ± 4.8, and 18.8 ± 5.9, respectively, and there was a positive correlation between all scales. When evaluating the stress levels according to gender, it was observed that those of the female dentists were higher than those of the male dentists (p &lt; 0.05). There was no significant difference in the anxiety levels between the male and female dentists. While there were no significant differences between the dentists who worked during the pandemic process and those who did not work (p &gt; 0.05), the COVID-19 stress levels were found to be lower in the normalization process (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic has caused stress and anxiety in dentists and has affected female dentists more than male dentists. In addition, working during the pandemic process can benefit dentists by helping to reduce the stress caused by the pandemic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Öncü E, Dinçer NN, Uçan Yarkaç F, Tekin Atay Ü. Evaluation of dentists' stress and anxiety levels in the COVID-19 pandemic. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):259-65.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.38">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.38</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Fatma Uçan Yarkaç, Ümmühan Tekin Atay, Nisa Nur Dinçer, Elif Öncü ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/364 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the color stability and surface roughness of dual-cure, bulk-fill composites https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/336 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In recent years, tooth-colored, dual-cure, bulk-fill composite resins, which have attracted attention for their ease of use, constitute one of the latest developments in pediatric dentistry applications. This study aimed to evaluate the color stability and surface roughness properties of three different dual-cure, bulk-fill materials and one light-cure, bulk-fill composite material used in pediatric dentistry.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this study, three different dual-cure, bulk-fill composites (Fill-Up, HyperFIL, Cention-N) and one light-polymerized bulk-fill composite (Reveal HD) were used. A total of 70 samples were obtained for surface roughness testing. The surface roughness testing was performed with a Hysitron TI 950 Triboindenter device. A total of 105 samples were obtained for the evaluation of color stability. Cherry juice, iced tea, and distilled water were used as solutions. Initial and final color measurements were made using a spectrophotometer. The color differences between measurements were recorded according to the CIEDE 2000 system.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The least surface roughness among the composite groups was observed in the light polymerized Cention-N composite samples in the experimental group. In the Fill-Up and Cention-N composite groups in the experimental group, the surface roughness of the samples left to self-polymerization and the samples polymerized with light showed a statistically significant difference (p &lt; 0.05). Among the composite groups, the highest amount of coloring was observed in the Fill-Up composite samples, which were left to self-polymerization and kept in cherry juice in the experimental group. The least coloration among the composite groups was observed in the Cention-N composite samples polymerized with light and kept in distilled water.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on this information, a decrease in surface roughness and an increase in color stability can be expected due to self-polymerization and the light polymerization of dual-cured, bulk-fill composites.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Şivgan Güner Z, Bolgül B, İnandı T. Evaluation of the color stability and surface roughness of dual-cure, bulk-fill composites. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):266-273.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl.39">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl.39</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Zehra Şivgan Güner, Behiye Bolgül, Tacettin İnandı ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/336 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical examination of various jaw fractures and evaluation of open and closed reductions: Six case reports https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/381 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to present the fracture types and treatment methods of jaw fracture cases that presented at our center.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Of six presenting cases, two were angulus, one was parasymphysis, three were subcondylar, and one was a medial condyle fracture only. All patients were evaluated both clinically and radiologically by CT of the atlanto-occipital joint. We managed two of the mandibular fractures with open and closed reduction (mixed) and four with closed reduction only. Dislocation was observed in only two patients. Internal fixation was performed using either mini plates (Medartis, Basel, Switzerland) or mini-screws. All cases united within three weeks to three months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After analyzing the epidemiology of six fractures and the outcomes of the surgical treatment, as well as assessing the complications related to the surgical procedures, it was determined that in cases with dislocation, bimaxillary fixation should be applied as a maintenance to open reduction therapy. In cases without dislocation, bimaxillary fixation only is sufficient.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> An analysis of dislocation conditions according to fracture type supports that the incidence of dislocation is low in condyle fractures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> An analysis of dislocation conditions according to fracture type supports that the incidence of dislocation is low in condyle fractures.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Özüdoğru S, Başaran MM, Ataözden T. Clinical examination of various jaw fractures and evaluation of open and closed reductions: Six case reports. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):274-8. &nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.40">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.40</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tahir Ataözden, Mustafa Mert Başaran, Semanur Özüdoğru ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/381 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Treatment of anatomic canal variations in premolar teeth: Five case reports https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/338 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this case report is to present a series of anatomical variations and endodontic treatments in four two-canal mandibular premolar teeth and three rooted three-canal maxillary second premolar teeth with root canal treatment indications identified via clinical and radiographic examinations.</p> <p>The success of root canal treatment is achieved with a thoroughly examined root canal morphology that has been accurately determined radiographically and clinically before adequate shaping, irrigation, and hermetic filling procedures. Root canals that are not found or not adequately disinfected can cause root canal treatment failure and complications, such as pain, swelling, or persistent fistula, also known as flare-up, after treatment.</p> <p>Canal variations in the teeth were detected via periapical radiographs during the root canal instrumentation stage.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The endodontic treatments of four two-canal mandibular premolar teeth and one triple-rooted three-canal maxillary second premolar with root canal treatment indications were described.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> To achieve full success in root canal treatment, anatomical variations should be examined in detail before and during treatment, and treatment should be completed with appropriate techniques.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Dinger E, Bodrumlu E. Treatment of anatomic canal variations in premolar teeth: Five case reports. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):279-84.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.41">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.41</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Emre Bodrumlu, Esma Dinger ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/338 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Temporary adhesive bridge restoration of the upper anterior teeth lost due to trauma: Three case reports https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/370 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Traumatic dental injuries at the anterior region of the maxilla occur frequently in children and adults. In this case report, we aimed to describe the temporary aesthetic restoration of the upper lateral incisor with a fiber-reinforced bridge by using the original tooth crown, which had avulsed after dental trauma.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> <strong>Case 1:</strong> A 14-year-old girl with an avulsion in tooth #11 due to trauma visited our clinic. During the examination, it was seen that the wound had healed, and there was no luxation in teeth #21 and #12. Since the patient could not undergo prosthetic procedures, for reasons including implants, and did not want a removable prosthesis, a single crown supported by acrylic tooth fibers was constructed.</p> <p><strong>Case 2:</strong> A 17-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic because of an avulsed left lateral incisor tooth, which was traumatized 15 days before visiting the clinic. His medical history revealed that his parents had found the tooth two hours after the trauma. However, the emergency clinic that he had previously visited did reimplant that tooth and repaired it with fiber-reinforced composite.</p> <p><strong>Case 3:</strong> In the examination of a 12-year-old male patient who applied to our clinic due to trauma, it was observed that tooth #11 had an avulsion and tooth #12 had a crown fracture. Root canal treatment was performed. A crown was made for the patient by supporting the fiber inside the canals of tooth #11 and tooth #21. It was revised aesthetically with the support of the crown of the other tooth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Avulsion after anterior trauma affects patients’ appearance aesthetically; thus, patients want to be treated as soon as possible. Function, phonation, and aesthetics must be quickly provided for a loose anterior tooth. Fiber-reinforced adhesive bridge techniques may be considered as a temporary treatment for providing an aesthetically appealing appearance until the completion of permanent prosthetic treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Şahin M, Toptancı İR. Temporary adhesive bridge restoration of the upper anterior teeth lost due to trauma: Three case reports. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):285-91. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.42">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.42</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Meryem Şahin, İsmet Rezani Totancı ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/370 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prosthetic rehabilitation of a hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia patient: A case report https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/367 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disease that arises from a developmental disorder of 2 or more ectoderm-derived tissues. Ectodermal dysplasia is seen in 3 different types: anhidrotic, hypohidrotic, and hidrotic. Its anhidrotic and hypohidrotic types are the most common. This study presents the intraoral findings and dental treatment approach of a case diagnosed with hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia that demonstrates the typical characteristics of the disease, such as anodontia, hypohydrosis (reduced sweating), hypotrichosis (sparse hair), and loss of vertical dimension.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A 5-year-old male patient presented to the clinic of the Prosthetic Dental Treatment Department of the School of Dentistry at Dicle University on 25.10.2020 with complaint of missing teeth. A genetic analysis conducted in 2016 showed that he was a homozygous carrier of the p.Cys148Arg (c.442 T&gt;C) mutation on the 5th exon of the ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR) gene. The mutation detected in the patient was associated with ectodermal dysplasia. An extraoral clinical examination revealed sparse hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes; soft, smooth, and dry skin; thin, linear wrinkles around the eyes and the lips; drooping, thickened lips; a sunken nose; fractured nails; hyperthermia due to lack of sweat glands; hyperkeratosis in the skin and soles of the feet; 2 nipples on one side of the chest; and reduced vertical facial height. An intraoral examination revealed anodontia; there were no teeth on the maxilla or the mandible and no radiographically identified tooth germ. Dry mouth due to a lack of sufficient saliva was another finding.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this case report, in the presence of anodontia, a removable total prosthesis, which is a non-invasive treatment option, was applied. Production of endosseous implants was postponed for a later time following the patient’s growth and development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Gökçe D, Ayna E, Seyfioğlu Polat Z. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia patient: A case report. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):292-8. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.43">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.43</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Dersim Gökçe, Emrah Ayna, Zelal Seyfioğlu Polat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/367 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Current approach to bone augmentation with allogeneic cortical graft: A case report https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/359 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Today, dental implant applications have become the most preferred option in the treatment of tooth deficiencies. Long-term successful results in dental implant applications depend largely on the volume and quality of the hard and soft tissues in the relevant region. Insufficient soft tissues and alveolar crest resorption complicate implant applications. Grafts and additional surgical procedures are required to compensate for resorption and to provide bone augmentation. Shell technique, one of the augmentation methods used in the treatment of alveolar bone defects, is an important procedure for guided bone regeneration. The purpose of this case report is to describe the treatment of vertical and horizontal bone loss with the Shell technique using allogeneic cortical grafts.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A 58-year-old female patient without any systemic disease was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of tooth loss in the right posterior mandibular region. In the intraoral and radiological examinations, it was determined that the bone volume in the relevant region was not sufficient for dental implant. Two-stage surgical treatment was planned for the patient. First, vertical and horizontal bone defects were augmented with allogeneic cortical graft application under local anesthesia. After the healing process, dental implants were placed in the sufficient volume of the alveolar bone and the patient's treatment was completed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Allogeneic grafts in the treatment of alveolar crest defects; it is a good alternative to autogenous bone grafts,there is no need for a second surgical field and the resulting reduction in morbidity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Eriş Derkuş F, Yılmaz UN. Current approach to bone augmentation with allogeneic cortical graft: A case report. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):299-302.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.44">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.44</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Utku Nezih Yılmaz, Fatma Eriş Derkuş ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/359 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Correction of persistent crowding in the lower anterior region: A case report https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/358 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This case report demonstrates the application of piezocision in correcting persistent crowding in the lower anterior region of dental arch.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A female aged 14 years and 3 months presented to the Selcuk University Department of Orthodontics due to aesthetic complaints. Clinical and radiological examination revealed crowding in the upper and lower dental arches as well as skeletal and dental Class I malocclusion. First, bonding and arch wire were applied to the patient’s upper jaw. The patient then had check-up appointments at 4-week intervals. In the second session, bonding was applied to the lower jaw. As the leveling was completed in the upper jaw, thicker arch wires were used. However, 4 months after the bonding of the lower anterior region, leveling did not occur. Consequently, piezocision was applied to the lower anterior region. Then, two applications of 0.014'' and 0.016'' NiTi wire were carried out, respectively. After the completion of the leveling, intrusion was provided with the utility arch placed on the lower incisor brackets. Orthodontic treatment was concluded with the use of NiTi and steel angle wires.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Efficient leveling was achieved in the lower anterior region with piezocision applications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:&nbsp;</strong>Cime Akbaydogan L,&nbsp;Baka ZM, Uulusoy Mutluol E. Correction of persistent crowding in the lower anterior region: A case report. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):303-7. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.45">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.45</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Leyla Cime Akbaydogan, Zeliha Muge Baka, Esra Ulusoy Mutluol ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/358 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the periodontal status of a patient diagnosed with Sheehan syndrome: A case report https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/334 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Some immunological changes occurring in mothers during pregnancy increase their susceptibility to infections, including periodontal infections. Sheehan syndrome (SS) is a disease that occurs because of severe postpartum hemorrhage causing ischemic pituitary necrosis. The presence of multiple hormonal deficiencies leads to the impairment of bone microarchitecture, which can cause osteopenia and even osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and periodontitis are both chronic diseases characterized by bone loss. Moreover, recent studies have shown that there is a relationship between menopause, osteoporosis, alveolar bone resorption, and tooth loss. This case report aims to evaluate the oral and periodontal status of a patient with SS and to raise awareness about dental and periodontal problems that may occur in such patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A 63-year-old female patient diagnosed with SS in the endocrinology clinic was referred to the periodontology clinic with complaints of multiple tooth loss, mobility in her teeth, and gingival bleeding. In the clinical and radiographic examination of the patient, it was determined that all teeth had horizontal bone resorption; moreover, there was mobility in the mandibular anterior teeth and hemorrhage in the gums. When the patient’s laboratory results were examined, it was seen that the basal plasma levels of free triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, and total testosterone values were significantly lower, and the anterior pituitary elevation was significantly decreased in pituitary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The periodontium is the target tissue of sex and other hormones. Hormonal changes may affect the inflammatory–immune tissue responses of periodontal tissues. Many studies have shown that thyroid and sex hormones affect oral and especially periodontal tissues. The degradation of hormonal hemostasis may induce a series of pathological events in the oral environment, resulting in inflammatory changes in gingival tissues, periodontal attachment losses, and destruction of the alveolar bone. Systemic diseases that affect hormonal conditions, such as SS, must be considered in the evaluation of oral health. Medical physicians should refer their patients to the dentist for consultation when evaluating patients’ hormonal status and planning their treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Şen SC, Saygun NI, Or Koca A, Özcan E. Evaluation of the periodontal status of a patient diagnosed with Sheehan syndrome: A case report. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):308-11. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.46">https://doi.org/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.46</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Seval Ceylan Şen, Nuriye Işıl Saygun, Arzu Or Koca, Erkan Özcan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/334 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Long-term follow-up in lower right second premolar tooth with a dental follicle but no tooth bud: A case report https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/327 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The patient was followed up in consultation with the orthodontist, and after a long-term follow-up, it was found that the dental germ developed, but the position of the tooth was horizontal. When the follow-ups were continued, it was observed that the position of the tooth also improved, and it progressed smoothly along the tooth eruption path.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In the panoramic radiography of an 8-year-old male patient who applied to the clinic complaining about the left upper first primary molar tooth, the right lower permanent second premolar tooth follicle developed, but there was no tooth development in the follicle.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When follicle formation is observed, only following the patients without directing them to orthodontic treatment, which is expensive and difficult, positively affects their dental structure. Following patients without affecting their lives can be significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up when follicle formation was observed. We predicted that this situation was caused by the disconnection in the interaction of transcription factors and signals in the tooth development stage.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>How to cite this article:</strong> Sukurica Y, Çakır A. Long-term follow-up in lower right second premolar tooth with a dental follicle but no tooth bud: A case report. Int Dent Res 2021;11(Suppl.1):312-5. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5577/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.47">https://doi.org/10.5577/10.5577/intdentres.2021.vol11.suppl1.47</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Linguistic Revision:</strong>&nbsp;The English in this manuscript has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English.</p> Yusuf Sukurica, Asu Çakır ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.dental-research.com/index.php/idr/article/view/327 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000